### Book

## Geometry and Physics: Volume I: A Festschrift in honour of Nigel Hitchin

These volumes contain the proceedings of the conference held at Aarhus, Oxford and Madrid in September 2016 to mark the seventieth birthday of Nigel Hitchin, one of the world’s foremost geometers and Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. The proceedings contain twenty-nine articles, including three by Fields medallists (Donaldson, Mori and Yau). The articles cover a wide range of topics in geometry and mathematical physics, including the following: Riemannian geometry, geometric analysis, special holonomy, integrable systems, dynamical systems, generalized complex structures, symplectic and Poisson geometry, low-dimensional topology, algebraic geometry, moduli spaces, Higgs bundles, geometric Langlands programme, mirror symmetry and string theory. These volumes will be of interest to researchers and graduate students both in geometry and mathematical physics.

Let (X,C) be a germ of a threefold X with terminal singularities along an irreducible reduced complete curve C with a contraction f:(X,C)→(Z,o) such that C=f−1(o)red and −KX is ample. Assume that (X,C) contains a point of type (IIA). This paper continues our study of such germs containing a point of type (IIA) started in our previous paper.

We study effective versions of unlikely intersections of images of torsion points of elliptic curves on the projective line.

In this article, we give an explicit formula for the universal weight function of the quantum twisted affine algebra Uq(A(2)2 ). The calculations use the technique of projecting products of Drinfeld currents onto the intersection of Borel subalgebras of different types.

Article analyzes the methods of study of complex systems. A general approach to the design of complex systems based on the use of the theory of tensor analysis. The expediency of transition from continuous to discrete space. The necessity of the transition to the new geometry that is different from the analytic or projective. We introduce the notion of Petri net structure or NP-structure. Introduces the concept of the reference model NP-structures. We introduce the concept of coordinate transformation NP structures. We introduce the notion of the invariant under tensor analysis of NP-structures. A general model of the use of tensor methods and detailing the study of superconducting structures

We discuss the Poisson structures on Lie groups and propose an explicit construction of the integrable models on their appropriate Poisson submanifolds. The integrals of motion for the SL(N)-series are computed in cluster variables via the Lax map. This construction, when generalised to the co-extended loop groups, gives rise not only to alternative descriptions of relativistic Toda systems, but allows to formulate in general terms some new class of the integrable models. We discuss the subtleties of this Lax map related to the ambiguity in projection to the trivial co-extension and propose a way to write the spectral curve equation, which fixes this ambiguity, both for the Toda chains and their generalisations.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.