Industry 4.0. Entrepreneurship and Structural Change in the New Digital Landscape
This book presents the latest research perspectives on how the Industry 4.0 paradigm is challenging the process of technological and structural change and how the diversification of the economy affects structural transformation. It also explores the impact of fast-growing technologies on the transformation of socioeconomic and environmental systems, and asks whether structural and technological change can generate sustainable economic growth and employment. Further, the book presents the basic innovations (new technologies, materials, energy, etc) and industrial policies that can lead to such a structural change.
In this chapter, we analyze the relationship between Kondratieff waves and major technological revolutions on the basis of the theory of production principles and production revolutions, and offer some forecasts about the features of the Sixth Kondratieff Wave/the Fourth Industrial Revolution. We show that the technological breakthrough of the Sixth Kondratieff Wave may be interpreted as both the Fourth Industrial Revolution and as the ﬁnal phase of the Cybernetic Revolution. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s will merge with the ﬁnal phase of the Cybernetic Revolution (which we call a phase of selfregulating systems). This period will be characterized by the breakthrough in medical technologies which will be capable of combining a number of other technologies into a single system of new and innovative technologies (we denote this system as a system of MANBRIC-technologies—i.e. medical, additive, nano-, bio-, robo-, info-, and cogno-technologies).
Analyzes Industry 4.0 under a global perspective, focusing on the most advanced economies. Brings together the options for future industrial development that is technologically possible. Provides a qualitatively new impetus to economic growth. Provides different scenarios of implementation of advanced technologies, materials, energies on specific economies, representing different continents and realities.
With an increasing number of companies applying smart manufacturing (Industry 4.0) technologies, and therefore gathering records from multiple enterprise data sources, a potential for big data analytics (BDA) is seemingly limitless. Still not every firm that implemented smart manufacturing reports gathering or making use of big data emerging from those processes, let alone extracting value from them. This study investigates business value creation mechanisms from BDA in smart manufacturing. Relying on several use cases and project stories described in publicly available sources, we analyze key drivers, applications, barriers, success factors, and business benefits of BDA in smart manufacturing. We summarize our findings in a comprehensive framework capturing first- and second- order effects of BDA implementation on Industry 4.0 processes. Our work aims at contributing to the body of knowledge on BDA and smart manufacturing, and at guiding practitioners in identifying and assessing various application scenarios for those technologies.
The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of diversification of educational services in the conditions of industry 4.0 on the basis of artificial intelligence (AI) training, determine the consequences of this process for academic and teaching staff and to develop recommendations for its practical implementation.
It is generally known that software system development lifecycle (SSDL) should be managed adequately. The global economy crisis and subsequent depression have taught us certain lessons on the subject, which is so vital for digital transformation, for Industry 4.0. The paper presents the adaptive methodology of enterprise SSDL, which allows to avoid "local crises" while producing large-scale software. The methodology is based on extracting common ERP module level patterns and applying them to series of heterogeneous implementations. The approach includes a lifecycle model, which extends conventional spiral model by formal data representation/management models and DSL-based "low-level" CASE tools supporting the formalisms. The methodology has been successfully implemented as a series of portal-based ERP systems in ITERA oil-and-gas corporation, and in a number of trading/banking enterprise smart applications for other enterprises. Semantic network-based air traffic planning system, and a 6D-model-driven nuclear power plant construction support system are currently in progress.
We have examined the main new competencies that should be matched by the specialist — managers of complex techno-technological and socio-economic systems in the era of information (digital) and industrial revolutions. We have also investigated what kind of overprofessional competencies the expert should have and what the system of its preparation includes. Having outlined and analyzed modern approaches to the creation of integrated systems of quality management and modern enterprise management, we have defined new requirements that a manager in the digital revolution era must meet for the digital economy, able to occupy a vacant niche in the labor market formed at the junction of classical engineering, information and management specialties. We are confident that today there is an urgent need to open new directions for targeted training of such specialists.
The present article offers a simple mathematical model for forecast calculations of the synergy effect generated by the NBIC-convergence and the evaluation of its impact on the economic growth in the first half of the 21st century. We demonstrate that the NBIC-technologies (due to a powerful synergy effect) will lead to a significant acceleration of technological growth rates that will exceed the growth rates achieved at the upswing phase of the 5th Kondratieff wave (1982–2006) on the basis of the microelectronic technologies. Using the example of the USA economy, it is shown that in this country the annual technological growth rates will increase up to 3.3% (as compared with 2.3% per year in the 1980s), whereas the annual economic growth rates in the 2030s will be as high as 3.6%. Thus, we will see the replacement of the deceleration trend that was observed within the world economy in the recent forty years with an accelerating trend.
Materials of scientific and practical conference are included in the collection of works «Digital economy and «the Industry 4.0»: problems and prospects», prepared by laboratory «Innovative industrial economy» of Peter the Great St. Petersburg polytechnical university together with a number of the scientific organizations, higher education institutions, the industry entities.
In the collection of scientific works materials according to the theory of development of digital economy in modern conditions of the global competition, practical realization of the concept «the Industry 4.0», to research of problems and prospects of development of innovative activity of economic systems and enterprise entities, use of tools and valuation methods of an industrial development of regions, industries, the entities are reflected.
In the collection works of scientists and specialists of a number of higher education institutions, Russian Academies of Sciences institutes, the organizations, organizations and the entities, representatives of bodies of the public, municipal administration and executive power of Russia and foreign countries are provided.
Materials of the collection will be useful to teachers, scientists, specialists of the industrial, scientific enterprises, the organizations and organizations, and also graduate students, undergraduates and students.
Transition to Industry 4.0 in the 21st century takes place in the conditions of past industrial revolutions of the 19th–20th centuries, which were accompanied by transformation of the system of public production. Technologies change very quickly, creating new factors of formation of not only inter-sectorial and inter-country, but also inter-subject, communications—between the state and entrepreneurial subjects, which stimulates the emergence of a new revolutionary stage of transition of countries to the concept “Industry 4.0”. Here the authors conduct aspect analysis of actual mechanism of tax stimulation of Industry 4.0 in modern Russia as one of state tool that allows influencing entrepreneurial subjects and receiving feedback—which determines effectiveness of the system of their interaction. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.