Materials of the IEEE International Symposium «Video and Audio Signal Processing in the Context of Neurotechnologies»
Human societies crucially depend on social norms that specify appropriate actions in various situation. The effect of norms on collective behavior can break down if norm violations are not sanctioned. Social punishment is a form of behavior to enforce social norm compliance that relies on two key brain region: the “mentalizing network” (right temporo-parietal junction – rTPJ) evaluating individual responsibility and the “central-executive network” (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – rDLPFC) determining the final decision to punish norm violators. Here we further investigate the role of the brain network – rDLPFC-rTPJ – in third-party punishment. We used transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to disrupt the rDLPFC-rTPJ network of healthy subjects while they performed the Dictator Game. Our results suggests that the frequency of third-party punishment increased after the tDCS of the rDLPFC-rTPJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the effect of simultaneous tDCS of the rDLPFC and rTPJ on the third-party punishment. We also show that personality traits modulate the effect of tDCS on the third-party punishment.
The paper presents algorithms for automatic detection of non-stationary periods of cardiac rhythm during professional activity. While working and subsequent rest operator passes through the phases of mobilization, stabilization, work, recovery and the rest. The amplitude and frequency of non-stationary periods of cardiac rhythm indicates the human resistance to stressful conditions. We introduce and analyze a number of algorithms for non-stationary phase extraction: the different approaches to phase preliminary detection, thresholds extraction and final phases extraction are studied experimentally.
Due to very significant differences between streams obtained from different persons and relatively small amount of data common machine learning techniques do not work well with our data. Thus, we had to develop adaptive algorithms based on domain-specific high-level properties of data and adjust parameters based on the preliminary analysis of the stream, making the algorithms adaptive and thus able to capture individual features of a person.
These algorithms are based on local extremum computation and analysis of linear regression coefficient histograms. The algorithms do not need any labeled datasets for training and could be applied to any person individually. The suggested algorithms were experimentally compared and evaluated by human experts.
The volume contains proceedings of the XIII International symposium on problems of redundancy in information and control systems.
An effective calculation of the Reed-Solomon code syndrome is proposed. The method is based on the use of the partial normalized cyclic convolutions in the partial inverse cyclotomic discrete Fourier transform. The method is the best of the known algorithms, in terms of multiplicative complexity.
In this paper it is proposed to improve performance of the automatic speech recognition by using sequential three-way decisions. At first, the largest piecewise quasi-stationary segments are detected in the speech signal. Every segment is classified using the maximum a-posteriori (MAP) method implemented with the Kullback-Leibler minimum information discrimination principle. The three-way decisions are taken for each segment using the multiple comparisons and asymptotical properties of the Kullback-Leibler divergence. If the non-commitment option is chosen for any segment, it is divided into small subparts, and the decision-making is sequentially repeated by fusing the classification results for each subpart until accept or reject options are chosen or the size of each subpart becomes relatively low. Thus, each segment is associated with a hierarchy of variable-scale subparts (granules in rough set theory). In the experimental study the proposed procedure is used in speech recognition with Russian language. It was shown that our approach makes it possible to achieve high efficiency even in the presence of high level of noise in the observed utterance.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.