Non-western social movements and participatory democracy: Protest in the age of transnationalism
This paper tries to examine the recent wave of protests in India, specifically the case against corruption and the Delhi rape case with the very diverse constituents mobilizing together for the common ethical demands (e.g., dignity and the demand for the basic obligations of the state). This paper tries to understand the unique convergence and the incidental coalescing of diverse sections of society with the motley of social and spiritual organizations lock-stepping and underpinning this assertion of the invisible multitude, thus substituting the previous actors of sociopolitical mobilization along with a major shift in the modus operandi and repertoire of the protest movement.
This chapter analyses the nature of the Brazilian socio-political protests that sparked in 2013 and are still going on today. The focus on determining the main drivers of the movement, protesters’ demands, new forms of collective action and the resulting political changes allows me to trace an important change in the Brazilian democracy as a whole. These protests are neither a one-shot deal, nor an institutionalized social movement. I argue that they rather represent a demand of protesters for participation in the permanent dialogue between the power and the public on every single issue that troubles at least some groups of the society. In this sense, such protests may indicate a completely novel era in the Brazilian democracy that renders representative democracy obsolete and insufficient, while the demands for participatory democracy are being increasingly voiced. Importantly, this mode of protesting proves rather efficient in terms of real changes in politics it brought.
This chapter analyzes protester demands, strategies and new forms of participation during the Bosnian protests in 2013 and 2014. While protesters started with simple demands for socio-economic policy reforms, over time they took to the streets to fight corruption, inequality, and incompetence of the political elite. The protests led to the creation of the Citizen Plenums, which constitute Bosnia’s unique experience of direct decision-making mechanisms at the local level. It is this common protest agenda and new participatory institutions that contribute today to the unification of the ethnically divided Bosnian society.