The BRICS in International Development
This book offers a comprehensive comparative perspective on the increasingly significant development cooperation activities of the BRICS. Providing a powerful set of insights into the drivers for engagement within each country, it brings together leading experts from Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and OECD countries. The authors review the empirical evidence for the BRICS’ modes of development cooperation and their geographical reach, and explore the historical background and patterns of international development engagement of each country. They also present a cutting-edge analysis of the broader geopolitical shifts, distinctive ideologies and normative discourses that are influencing and informing their engagement in increasingly ambitious joint projects such as the New Development Bank. This collection is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the rapidly changing landscape of international development.
This concluding chapter looks across BRICS as a whole to examine differences and commonalities in development discourses, and in the structures that have emerged as a consequence of international engagements, as well as the role of the BRICS grouping’s emerging collective structures and their construction of alternative financial institutions. The chapter has three sections. The first section provides a comparative analysis of the transitions taking place in the DC activities of the five BRICS countries. The second section looks at the grouping’s development agenda and the common discourse of the BRICS. The third and final section asks ‘what next?’
Similar to the other BRICS countries (Brazil, China, India and South Africa), since 2007 Russia has been creating, or rather ‘re-creating’, an international development assistance programme and has become an active global development cooperation partner. While the Soviet Union was one of the largest donor countries in the world, Russian official development assistance, according to official government sources, increased more than eightfold in a decade, from US$100 million in 2004 to US$876 million in 2014. Russia consistently promotes cooperation for international development and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in major global governance institutions. But to what extent is Russia’s international development assistance compatible with its international cooperation strategy and domestic development priorities?This chapter attempts to respond to this question by exploring the country`s development assistance policy in detail. After a brief background on the history of Russian and Soviet international development assistance, the authors examine (1) the normative and institutional framework and (2) the sector and country/geographic foci of Russia’s international development assistance.
At this stage, it may be hypothesized that there are three major factors that influence Russia’s choice of partner countries, areas of assistance and the domestic structures of assistance delivery: the choice is driven, first, by security concerns; second, by economic interests; and third, by existing commitments in multilateral organizations.