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## Topology, Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Mathematical Physics: Novikov's Seminar 2012–2014

This journal publishes the mathematics section of Series I of the Vestnik (Herald) of St. Petersburg University, and is one of the oldest Russian mathematics journals in English translation. Articles cover the major areas of pure and applied mathematics.

Many famous mathematicians are associated with the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics at St. Petersburg University, including Chebyshev, Lyapunov, Alexandrov, Smirnov, Kantorovich, to name a few. Today, mathematics/mechanics faculty members continue the excellent tradition in mathematics associated with the University and the **Vestnik** is the prime outlet for their research results.

This is a lecture note based on the series of lectures on the dispersionless integrable hierarchies delivered by the authore in June, 2013, at the Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan. The contents are survey on dispersionless integrable hierarchies, including introduction to integrable systems in general, and on their connections with complex analysis.

These volumes contain the proceedings of the conference held at Aarhus, Oxford and Madrid in September 2016 to mark the seventieth birthday of Nigel Hitchin, one of the world’s foremost geometers and Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. The proceedings contain twenty-nine articles, including three by Fields medallists (Donaldson, Mori and Yau). The articles cover a wide range of topics in geometry and mathematical physics, including the following: Riemannian geometry, geometric analysis, special holonomy, integrable systems, dynamical systems, generalized complex structures, symplectic and Poisson geometry, low-dimensional topology, algebraic geometry, moduli spaces, Higgs bundles, geometric Langlands programme, mirror symmetry and string theory. These volumes will be of interest to researchers and graduate students both in geometry and mathematical physics.

We discuss the Poisson structures on Lie groups and propose an explicit construction of the integrable models on their appropriate Poisson submanifolds. The integrals of motion for the SL(N)-series are computed in cluster variables via the Lax map. This construction, when generalised to the co-extended loop groups, gives rise not only to alternative descriptions of relativistic Toda systems, but allows to formulate in general terms some new class of the integrable models. We discuss the subtleties of this Lax map related to the ambiguity in projection to the trivial co-extension and propose a way to write the spectral curve equation, which fixes this ambiguity, both for the Toda chains and their generalisations.

A method based on the spectral analysis of thermowave oscillations formed under the effect of radiation of lasers operated in a periodic pulsed mode is developed for investigating the state of the interface of multilayered systems. The method is based on high sensitivity of the shape of the oscillating component of the pyrometric signal to adhesion characteristics of the phase interface. The shape of the signal is quantitatively estimated using the correlation coefficient (for a film–interface system) and the transfer function (for multilayered specimens).

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.