Политическая наука перед вызовами современной политики. Материалы VII Всероссийского конгресса политологов, Москва, 19–21 ноября 2015 г.
The article was devoted the analysis adaptation strategies of the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox Churches to the new social and political conditions in the last decades. The author comes to the conclusion that Russian Orthodox Church chooses strategy of conservation to the new social and political conditions and Roman Catholic Church makes decision to follow democratic adaptation strategies.
The paper makes an attempt at inserting (positivistic) political science in a broader epistemological context than it is usually conceived. The implied context is that of the contingency of the human world which was pointed out by Aristotle in “Nicomachean Ethics” when he stated that politics deals more with particulars than with general principles, and more with changeable than stable things. Under the conditions of contingency, finding a foothold for thinking and acting becomes a problem; political science is considered as one of the three “strategies” of dealing with contingency, along with “political creativity” and “political virtù”. Political science as such aims at finding invariants and regularities which govern the social world; “political creativity” is concerned both with designing new invariants which would structure the social world and with making the connection between causes and effects more reliable; finally, “political virtù” is what makes human action less dependent on the invariants, and it can manifest itself in various forms – from the Machiavellian virtù as such to “antifragility”. The choice of the strategy depends on the degree of complexity of the process which has to be dealt with. The paper describes three strategies of taming contingency, proposes a classification of the degrees of complexity of (social and political) processes (elementary, simple, complex and chaotic) and derives some implications from the general argument. These implications entail, among other things, that in the world which political science studies there are no clear-cut boundaries between 1) knowledge and action, 2) scientific knowledge and pragmatically oriented heuristics.
The article was devoted the analysis relations thinkers of Catholicism and Orthodoxy to democratic values. The author analyzed texts of religious thinkers about democracy, liberty and law. Investigator came to the conclusion that catholic thinkers have good relations to democratic oriented values but orthodox thinkers have negative relations to democratic oriented values.
The article was devoting a problem of research causation between stateness and political regime. The author worked within the structuralism approach and using econometric tools. He educed that political regime is determined of stateness.
Modern political science faces significant challenges in methodology, positioning, and disciplinary reproduction. Virtually all of these challenges (both internalist and externalist) are due to the reduction of the methodology of political science to the positivist paradigm. Examples of concepts of political culture, democratic transit, hybrid regimes, post-secularity, political will are a demonstration of the positivist paradigm weaknesses. The positivist methodological orientation dominance gives such the cost in political science as both in the reduction of the scientific explanation to the evaluative categorization and in the elimination from the subject of consideration of the actual political subject and his will. Answers to these challenges suggest systematization of the interdisciplinary narrative of political knowledge. It is necessary to expand the methodological horizon of the analysis of political reality. Such expansion is possible on the interdisciplinary approach basis, which is specified in this work as fixing and disclosing the poly-narrative content of political knowledge. The dynamics of political reality is revealed through the procedure (algorithm, technology) of the generation of a phenomenon or concept with the help of narratives, the corresponding formulation of factology, theoretical constructs and the goals of political reality analysis. In turn, the history of the generation procedure, taking into account the social forces game reveal the individual nature of political phenomena. In this regard, it becomes clear that the key role for modern political science is precisely the validity of the goals pursued, problem orientation, i. e. “expediency” of the planned or carried out the activity. The criterion of science is not in the methods, but in solving the problem, which is guaranteed by the adequacy of the methods used. The proposed approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing and explaining the political processes dynamics, the role of specific political forces, socio-cultural and personal factors in them.