Handbook of Ratings: Approaches to Ratings in the Economy, Sports, and Society
This article conducts a study of multiplying the credit rating agencies efforts. These opportunities are practically important in connection with implementation of the IRB approach. The author considers Russian commercial banks as one of the main examples of using proposal methods, so in addition to literature overview the paper includes review of the Russian banking system and rating activities.
Firstly, the author discussed the rating scales mapping for comparison of rating estimations of different agencies. Then, he proposed the distance method with the connected extremum problem to find compatible mapping functions for rating scale correspondence.
Secondly, the paper considered the possibility of rating model system creation for financial institutions. The bank rating models in order logit interpretation are discussed simultaneously for resident (Russian) and non-resident institutions. In addition, the specification of bank models’ characteristics and their quality were considered for the three largest international rating agencies also as econometrical models for corporates and sovereign were presented.
The results reviewed can help to apply basic instruments for practical applications of such models to the risk management problems, which are based on the public information and remote estimation of ratings. Commercial banks and government financial regulators may be perspective consumers of the proposed methods.
This article discusses ways to stimulate students' motivation to participate in extracurricular activities. The author points out the following forms of extra-curricular activities: administrative, informative and entertaining. The author proposes the scale of assessment of students for participation in extracurricular activities. These forms should be taken into account in the rating system of the student's academic achievement
The up-to-date problem of improvement of the quality of higher equation is discussed in the present article. Results of the world rating of the higher-educational institutions for 2011 and 2012 as well as its Russian positions are given by the QS research agency. «Strategy-2020» is being discussed (paragraph 10. Professional education). The author of the article shares with her experience in arrangement of original student work in the form of on-line study. The article deals with the thesis «High-quality education today is deserving life in the future».
In research is carried out analysis and proposed models for assessment estimating the investment level and investment potential of companies Models are tested on the example of leading IT companies. It is suggested the ranking method for companies' market indicators regarding the investment attractiveness by information available in open sources.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.