Микрополосковые СВЧ устройства на печатных платах с многослойными диэлектрическими подложками
The methodology and software tools for multi-level thermal and electro-thermal design of electronic components is presented. The discussion covers 2D/3D constructions of: 1) discrete and integrated semiconductor devices; 2) monolithic and hybrid ICs; 3) MCMs and PCBs. The actual test validation through thermal measurement is demonstrated for all types of components.
Three types of copper traces for PCBs were investigated: 1) 2.5 μm thin film lines (Ti;Cu;Ni) on aluminium and ceramic (Al2O3) substrates; 2) 2.5 μm thin film lines (Ti;Cu;Ni;Au) on ceramic (Al2O3) substrates; 3) 15 μm traces (Cu;Ni) on polyimide substrate for high density interconnection PCBs. The width of all types of traces was varying in the range of 100-500 μm. The set of temperature-current diagrams for different PCB scenarios are presented and analyzed. The temperature caused by Joule heating was measured using IR camera Flir A40 with macrolens. For different cases the current was set in the range of 0.1-3 A; the measured temperature was in the range of 20-140 oC. The close agreement between the results measured and simulated with ELCUT software tool was achieved.
The automatic electro-thermal simulation has been implemented in Mentor Graphics PCB Design Flow. New program-dispatcher TransPower has been developed to control the electro-thermal calculation process, combining the programs of the electric (Analog Designer) and thermal (BETAsoft) simulation into a single cycle. As a result, the labor consumption and the PCB electro-thermal simulation time have been significantly reduced, the accuracy and reliability of calculations have been improved and the human errors have been eliminated.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.