Формирование ценностных ориентаций школьников
The purpose of the article is to analyze the social competitiveness of young people in the context of their ideas about their socio-cultural environment. The socio-cultural environment in the study is represented by the respondents’ perceptions about the predominance of a certain type of society at three levels: Russia as a whole, the region, the enterprise (educational institution). The social competitiveness of young people has only scarcely been studied by sociologists. In the article, this phenomenon is seen as the ability of social actors to achieve their goals in a society in the conditions of competition with other people. The empirical basis of this research is a representative survey, conducted in 2016 in the Krasnoyarsk Territory using formalized interviews among 1000 respondents. The article shows that the most competitive youth are those who perceive their socio-cultural macro environment (Russian society) as either pre-industrial, feudal or industrial, capitalistic one. It is established that there are two opposing in their meaning forms of the moral and value environment of the young people in the region, each of which ensures the high social competitiveness of a certain part of the youth. In particular, the socio-cultural environment of the competitiveness of young people corresponds to the contemporary state of Russian society. On the contrary, many adult actors continue to live in the socio-cultural context of the past era. It is concluded that the socio-cultural environment of the activity is specific for various social actors, and the identification of mechanisms of determination of social success is a promising area for further research.
The article considers the value orientations of the Afrasian zone of instability on the basis of two gender dimensions: dimension of gender power and economic gender dimension. The authors include in the Afrasian zone of instability the Middle East (including North Africa) all the Big Middle East (including Central Asia and Pakistan), as well as the Sahel countries. The analysis allows us to conclude that, according to some of the country's values, the Afrazi zone forms a fairly compact cluster, which differs markedly both from the countries of Africa south of the Sahel and from the Eastern Islamic countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia and Malaysia). The differences of the countries of the Afrasian zone from Africa south of the Sahel are especially pronounced in these dimensions. The Eastern Islamic countries differ quite strongly from the countries of the Afrasian zone in the political gender space, but their differences are not so pronounced in the economic gender space, although these differences, however, are statistically significant. This fact correlates well with the fact that the countries of Africa south of the Sahel are characterized by high female labor force participation rates, which radically differs them from the countries of the Afrasian zone, for the majority of which extremely low female labor force participation rates are rather typical. At the same time, the Eastern Islamic countries (which are characterized by female labor force participation rates that are close to the world average) do not differ so much from the countries of the Afrasian zone in the economic geneder value dimension (although these differences are still statistically significant).
The article presents an investigation of the connection between self-image and the value-motivational orientation of delinquent adolescents in comparison with normatively developing adolescents. Delinquency among minors and young people is one of the most pressing social problems all over the world. Asocial behavior patterns and habits acquired at an early age in the absence of correction along the way can lead to a severe deformation of personality and the growth of recidivism. As such, it is imperative to study the mechanisms of the formation of deviant behavior. The connection between unlawful behavior of adolescents and the specifics of their self-image and value orientation is doubtless, however, this aspect is insufficiently elaborated academically. The article presents a study aimed at revealing the features of these associations in normatively developing and delinquent adolescents. The study involved 90 adolescents aged from 14 to 17. Of these 54% were boys, 46% were girls. The adolescents were divided into 3 groups: students of the 9th grade of general education schools, students of the 11th grade of general education schools, and delinquent adolescents who are registered with the Department of Juvenile Affairs. The peculiarities of the association between self-image and the value-motivational orientation of the personality of delinquent adolescents identified in the study will help in improving the system of prevention of neglect and juvenile delinquency.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.