Language Contact: The State of the Art
The 2014 Symposium 'Language Contact: The State of the Art' took place in Helsinki, August 28-30
Yiddish is a Germanic language that was highly influenced by Slavic languages (Polish, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Russian) on different levels, including vocabulary and pragmatics. Discursive markers are one of the spheres that have many loanwords. In this paper, the usage of the Yiddish particle zhe (cf. pol. -że, ukr. že, bel. ž (a), rus. ž(e)) is compared to the usage of the Yiddish particle dokh (cf. germ. dokh). The German particle doch and the Russian particle ž(e) are often considered translation equivalents [Orlova 2012]. The aim of this paper is to understand to what extend the particles dokh and zhe are semantically and contextually different and whether they can be interchangeable.
Peninsula Yucatan Spanish - organic part of the all-Spanish language space both at the same time independent and independent language whole, possessing own feature set and forming special linguistic and culturological essence.
Article raises the main questions connected with variability of language on the example of the Mexican national option of Spanish. In each certain Latin American country formation of the literary standards of Spanish happened differently. Spanish of Mexico - one of unique language educations not only because Mexico - the largest Spanish-speaking country, but also a place where the stable all-Spanish kernel and dialect features caused by identity of the Mexican culture organically coexist. Loans from other languages also "provide" specifics of this concrete language. Because development of language is continuous, there are new elements which at first are accepted by one collective before becoming standard.
Chapter 3 deals with the interaction of language and culture that make two facets of Russian English. Section 1, prepared by Zoya Proshina, provides for the comparison between Russian and English. It describes typological characteristics of Russian and English and their common features and distinctions on different language levels, which may have an impact on the features of Russian English. It is known that language contact between English and an indigenous language is usually a two-way process that leads to nativization of English and Englishization of the indigenous language. Englishization of Russian is elucidated by Alexandra Rivlina and Zoya Proshina in section 2. In section 3, Alexandra Rivlina elabo-rates on English and Russian code-mixing and code-switching. She argues that English-Russian hybridization is increasingly widely used in Russian discourse, especially in the form of word play based on code-mixing. Section 4, by Svetlana Ter-Minasova, focuses the discussion on the contemporary changes in Russian mentality and culture caused by the sudden ‘intrusion’ of English into the Russian language, culture, and lifestyle. The impact of English culture via the English language in its various forms (mass media, advertisement, the avalanche borrowing, etc.) on the Russian culture can be seen in different domains: in the business domain, change of attitudes to patronymics; in academic papers, change of style, a great damage inflicted on the Russian linguacultural picture of the world by poor translations from English into Russian. Section 5, by Victor Kabakchi and Elena Beloglazova, characterizes the way English adjusts to expressing Russian culture-loaded concepts.
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
The volume includes proceedings of the 23th Scandianvian Conference of Linguistics (SCL 23) that was held at Uppsala University 1–3 October 2008. It includes studies covering a wide spectrum of approaches to linguistics, for example, cross-linguistic typological studies, linguistic variation and language change in contact situations as well as studies relating to bilingualism and to second and foreign language learning.
The paper reviews D.G. Miller's recent book, "External influences on English: From its beginnings to the Renaissance".
In Udi (Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic), the prenominal relative clause may be preceded by a genitive phrase referring, at first glance, to some of its arguments. It is proposed that this construction results from a borrowing from Azerbaijani, which, however, underwent reanalysis: the genitive phrase behaves as the possessor of the matrix nominal phrase and the relative clause appears to specify the possessive relation. The Udi data are further compared with data from a few other languages that display similar constructions.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.