Адаптация к условиям самостоятельного проживания выпускников организаций для детей-сирот и детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей [Социальное обслуживание семей и детей: научно-методический сборник]
Changes in family structure, divorce or separation of parents have strong impact on child, his behavior and transition to the adulthood. According to the foreign researches, family disintegration affects young women more than young men. This paper tests influence of living within single-parent family during the childhood on educational attainment, matrimonial and reproductive behavior of women, using three waves of panel data of Generation and Gender Survey, which was carried out in Russia in 2004, 2007 and 2011, respectively. Our empirical results show that women who spent their childhood in single-parent families are more likely to have secondary vocational education, prefer cohabitation rather than marriage and as a consequence have more cohabiters during their lifespan and be lone mothers as a result of family dissolution.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.