Горизонты зрелости. Сборник тезисов участников Пятой всероссийской научно-практической конференции по психологии развития
In article on the basis of archival documents are being reconstructed organizational basis and specifics of the youth of exit tourism in the USSR in the initial period of the activity of Bureau of international youth tourism «Sputnik». With the conclusion of expanding the geography of outbound tourism and the expansion of the tourism international relations adjoins the conclusion of the focus of tourist flows, first of all, in the countries of the Soviet block. In turn, the rapid growth of the number of travelling abroad Soviet young tourists with a lag of volumes of outbound tourism on the size of the entrance. The course for the direct exchange without payment in a currency has been accompanied by measures to increase the volume of commercial tourism, especially with the countries of the West.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.