Топосы философии Наталии Автономовой. К юбилею
Alexandre Kojeve (Kojevnikoff) relatively early, when he was only 32 years old, formulated main ideas of his philosophical doctrine. This was preceded by his childhood and youth in prerevolutionary Moscow, where his study of philosophy begins (1902 - 1919); university studies in philosophy and oriental languages in Germany, finishing with his dissertation on Vladimir Solovyov's metaphysics in Paris (1926 - 1933), development of proper anthropology and first essay of existential phenomenology (the manuscript "Atheism", 1931), which shall be a part of his neohegelian system.
The purpose of this article is to explore the repercussion of Kantian transcendental philosophy, especially his notion of apriori, in the early French epistemological tradition. The reception of Kant in France was influenced by eclectic junction of Kant’s doctrine of categories as apriori conditions of objective knowledge with the Cartesian cogito that led to psychological interpretation of the origin of categories. Emile Boutroux (1845-1921) later developed the theory of scientific knowledge where the systematization of natural phenomena is guided by categories and dispositions of mixed nature (not merely apriori neither aposteriori). In Boutroux’s epistemology the mind and the external reality appear to be two active and opposing forces. The mind try to understand the reality by putting on it the mental categorical grid, but the reality acts as an independent force resisting rational organization. The resistance of reality offers the possibility of eventual transformation of previous mental schemes. This possibility of transformation of epistemological categories in history was further explored by French historian of science Hélène Metzger (1889-1944) in her works dedicated to the mental apriori.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.