Проект определения предмета охраны архитектурного объекта эпохи советского авангарда
The concept of “cultural heritage”, from the point of view of the norms of international law, is an integral part of the more general concept of “heritage”. The author of the article emphasizes that although there is no legal definition of this term within the Russian legal system, nevertheless the cultural heritage is understood to mean the aggregate of material and non-material objects of natural and anthropogenic nature that are of some value to humanity.
The article contains analysis of the problems of historical and cultural heritage protection. The execution of powers for the protection of historical and cultural heritage of the Executive authorities of the Russian Federation and of the Subjects of Russia are considered.
The present article aims to investigate some vocal effects that came into play in Soviet films of the early 1930s. In the course of the early Soviet experiments with sound recording, performed by broadcast engineers Alexander Shorin (Leningrad) and Pavel Tager (Moscow), the Soviet Union has become able to set up an independent sound film production. It was probably not so highly advanced in Russia as in Hollywood, but still it was sufficient to shoot films with impressive sound effects. During the earliest period, human voices recorded to film simultaneous to the picture, underwent certain distortions, not only due to the shortfalls of sound technology but also for a clear conceptual reason. For example, a voice was being alienated from the body and tended to become a kind of supreme instance that represented the Soviet state existing ‘anywhere and nowhere’. Such films as ‘Alone’ by Grigorij Kozintsev & Leonid Trauberg (1931), ‘Ivan’ by Olexander Dovzhenko (1932) and ‘Deserter’ by Vsevolod Pudovkin (1933) give evidence of how this concept was implemented in the early film. A kind of supernatural voice that belonged to the state was set to be emitted via loudspeakers. It was then gradually getting inside human mind and started ruling it from the inside like a personal voice. The aim of the analysis is to examine how the dominant (transcendent) voice of the state triggers the protagonist’s identity loss while forcing the individual to get his self-adjusted to alien’s voice.