Word and Image in Russian History: Essays in Honor of Gary Marker
Word and Image invokes and honors the scholarly contributions of Gary Marker. Twenty scholars from Russia, the United Kingdom, Italy, Ukraine and the United States examine some of the main themes of Marker’s scholarship on Russia—literacy, education, and printing; gender and politics; the importance of visual sources for historical study; and the intersections of religious and political discourse in Imperial Russia. A biography of Marker, a survey of his scholarship, and a list of his publications complete the volume.
Contributors: Valerie Kivelson, Giovanna Brogi (University of Milan), Christine Ruane (University of Tulsa), Elena Smilianskaia (Higher School of Economics, Moscow), Daniela Steila (University of Turin), Nancy Kollmann (Stanford University), Daniel H. Kaiser (Grinnell College), Maria di Salvo (University of Milan), Cynthia Whittaker (City Univ. of New York), Simon Dixon (University of London), Evgenii Anisimov (St. Petersburg), Alexander Kamenskii (Higher School of Economics, Moscow), Janet Hartley (London School of Economics), Olga Kosheleva (Moscow State University), Maksim Yaremenko (Kyiv), Patrick O'Meara (University of Durham), Roger Bartlett (London), Joseph Bradley (University of Tulsa), Robert Weinberg (Swarthmore College)
Emancipation of the Greeks became for Catherine an important, although not the only, aspect of her southern policy, along with questions about the Turkish threat, conquest of the Crimea, and Turkish penetration of the Mediterranean «concert of powers». During the first two decades of her reign, the Greek idea underwent a serious transformation in the Mediterranean policy of Catherine II. Between 1762 and the early 1770s Russia offered help to Greek co-religionists so that they could create their own independent state. The change in relations with the Greeks was not only the product of frustrated possibilities of cooperation. From 1771 the image of the «unenlightened» Greeks, in contrast to the image of the «Spartans,» became more significant, it became difficult to trust the Greeks to choose independently their «liberty,» their manner of rule or their ruler. By the early 1780s the Russian Empress decided to grant Greeks (with Austrian help) their emancipation from the Turks, almost without taking into account the Greeks themselves.
The article is based on the registers of the promissory notes protests and is aimed at exploring business activities of 18th century Russian provincial townswomen.
The essay examines the question of women in power in the Eighteenth Century