Образование: традиции и инновации: Материалы VII международной научно-практической конференции (29 декабря 2014 года)
The article is devoted to the evaluation of the quality and the curriculum of professional engineering education in Russia, which was given by technical specialists, engineers and programmers. The article provides an overview of key publications on the topic and specifics of engineering education and its reforms in the country and abroad. Respondents talked about the value of getting the fundamental knowledge and the need for a broad and practical education for future engineers and technical specialists. Also, many respondents stressed the need to link education and practical work. The article based on results of twenty interviews with engineers and technical specialists.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.