Протестантизм в современной России. Вклад в развитие общества, религии, истории и культуры
Upsurge of protest activities at the dawn of the first decade of this century coinsided with a new wave of political development. Protest can be associated with a new (the 5th ?) wave of democratization and to that effect with reshuffle of institutions and practices of democratic accountability. Conceptualization of protest may help to reshape democratic accountability. Still the cognitive scheme of protest remains unacknowledged by majority of protesters themselves. The article reconstructs notion of justification and enforcement of one’s rights dating back to Roman law and expressed by the terms provocatio and protestatio. Christian idea of Covenant and Testamentum enrooted appeal to higher authority for redress of grievances. The idea was further developed by Protestants. They employed trilateral cognitive scheme of two pleaders and an arbiter. Further revolutionary upheavals led to reduction of the scheme to binary (left-right) models. Present day discourses provide two models of protest: (1) binary schemata of non-conventional and obstinate protest, and (2) trinary schemata of appeal to outside arbiter, e.g. public opinion, international community etc. for restoration of violated norms. The inner forms and cultural implications of petition, demonstration and manifestation are vital for meaningful understanding of protest actions and to further reshaping democratic accountability.
Religious teachings have played a significant role in the development of human rights, but nowadays, they do not exert any serious influence on the latter. In recent decades, the major religions focus on developing their own human rights concepts which are compared to modern liberal theories. Such religious teachings differ in several relevant aspects. The beginnings of Buddhism and Protestantism do not reject the democratic and liberal understanding ofhuman rights, but the Orthodoxyand Islam focus on opposing their attitudes to such interpretation. The question as to the possibilityto take into account religious views within the framework of human rights legal theory remains open.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.