Family Values across Cultures. Intercultural Research.
This book offers a comparative analysis of value and identity changes in several post-Communist countries. In light of the tremendous economic, social and political changes in former communist states, the authors compare the values, attitudes and identities of different generations and cultural groups. Based on extensive empirical data, using quantitative and qualitative methods to study complex social identities, this book examines how intergenerational value and identity changes are linked to socio-economic and political development. Topics include the rise of nationalist sentiments, identity formation of ethnic and religious groups and minorities, youth identity formation and intergenerational value conflicts
The article presents results of family values’ study among Russian teenagers. Also such emotionally-regulative characteristics as spontaneous and reactive aggressiveness, irritability, steadiness, shyness are analyzed. These personality traits are examined as predictors of rejection of family values among teenagers. Authors use data of global research, which was done among high school students from eight regions of Russia in 2016. Subject of our analysis are data of social questionnaire and multi-factor personal questionnaire FPI. Due to results of research, positive attitude to family values was diagnosed. Most of teenagers want to create a family, think, that family is basis of state and agree with necessary to prepare person for creation family, training family values. However, most of teenagers have positive attitude to civil marriage and permit childbirth out of marriage. So, we can see two different lines: preservation of family values from one side, and forming liberal position from another side. Analysis of regression models presents, that emotionally-regulative characteristics, such as spontaneous aggressiveness, irritability and steadiness, are predictors of rejection of family values. Aggressive and unstable teenager forms negative attitude to family values. Nevertheless, more irritable teenagers have more positive attitude to this values, than others do. Perhaps, youngsters would like to feel themselves more comfortable in their own future family, than with parents.
The study highlighted the role of family climate and value transmission in the well-being of youth. A positive psychological climate within a family (psychological closeness of youth with their mothers) was a strong predictor of the well-being of Russian youth in Latvia. The results indicated that the absolute value similarity scores of Russian youth with their Russian peers are the highest in all the higher-order values compared to value similarity of Russian youth with their mothers and Latvian peers. The positive relationship between the value similarity of Russian youth with Russian peers and psychological well-being of Russian youth was found only for similarity in self-enhancement values. The latter result is in line with the results of related research that showed that value congruence with the group of peers (this group might be seen as a reference group) contributes to life satisfaction (Khaptsova & Schwartz, 2016; Musiol & Boehnke, 2013). An additional conclusion from this study is that value transmission of ethnic minority youth serves not only as a tool for culture maintenance and well-being but also as a tool for acculturation at the individual, family, and group levels.
The aim of this review is to offer a coherent selection of previous findings related to the pivotal role of teachers at nurturing the moral acquisitions in their students. Four sections are dissecting evidence about teaching efficacy, teaching practice, value transmission and imitative learning. Through these elements, the possibilities of a successful intervention will be discussed and confronted with the unavoidable limitations and controversies.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.