The Road to Universal Logic
This is the first volume of a collection of papers in honor of the fiftieth birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau. These 25 papers have been written by internationally distinguished logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists and philosophers, including Arnon Avron, John Corcoran, Wilfrid Hodges, Laurence Horn, Lloyd Humbertsone, Dale Jacquette, David Makinson, Stephen Read, and Jan Woleński. It is a state-of-the-art source of cutting-edge studies in the new interdisciplinary field of universal logic. The papers touch upon a wide range of topics including combination of logic, non-classical logic, square and other geometrical figures of opposition, categorical logic, set theory, foundation of logic, philosophy and history of logic (Aristotle, Avicenna, Buridan, Schröder, MacColl). This book offers new perspectives and challenges in the study of logic and will be of interest to all students and researchers interested the nature and future of logic.
Recent developments in international football governance seem to be progressively leading toward an increasing use of technological devices for refereeing purposes. Opponents to change are often portrayed as old-fashioned or conservative. Philosophy might be of some help to overcome the dispute. In this paper, we first explore several concepts that are central to the current debate on football refereeing. Then, we determine the business of referees in relation to rules. We assess different arguments displayed regarding the role of chance and skills in competitions. Finally, we argue for the idea of referees as full players in football games.
The conception of logical pluralism claims that there is not one true logic but there are many. The conception of metalogical relativism is based on the assumption that there is not one correct answer as to whether a given argument is deductively valid, but there are many—many non-classical answers depending of which non-classical metalogic we exploit: intuitionistic, relevant, quantum, many-valued, etc. Since this leads to the interplay between logics and metalogics the question arises: What is the nature of this interplay? The Universal Logics approach gives us hints at some answers to this question but at the expense of the exploitation of different combination of non-classical logical systems leading to the transition from metalogical pluralism to metalogical monism. The only problem in this case is the impossibility of the exploitation of an infinite combination of non-classical systems. There are also some semantic keys to the issue under consideration which are connected with the problem of the interplay of classical and non-classical universes: non-classical logics would be interpreted in the classical universe, and vice versa, the classical logic would be interpreted in non-classical universes.