Психологическая наука и практика: проблемы и перспективы. Материалы III Международной научно-практической конференции
The peculiarities of the development of schoolchild personality in the conditions of the modern school are regarded in the article taking to account his or her migratory history. The sociological analysis of external factors and content elements of migrants' children adaptation, contradictions, that arise in the process of school adaptation, the opportunities of the personal development of children at school are underscored in the article.
The main point today is what and how to teach? Before answering the question we need to have clear definition - what do education and standards of education mean? From time to time the reforms of education are occurred, i.e. the standards of teaching are changed: something has gone out of date, something is not quite suitable, sometimes our education fails to keep pace with life. Today, economics and society are sharply developing that is why we need to use new standards and technology for teaching if we want our students will be demanded and competitive on the market.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.