Young faculty in the 21st century: International Perspectives
Young faculty are the future of academia, yet without attractive career paths for young academics, the future of the university is bleak. Featuring case studies from Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, and the United States, Young Faculty in the Twenty-First Century is the first book to analyze issues facing early-career higher education faculty in an international context. The contributors discuss how young academics are affected by contracts, salaries, the structure of careers, and institutional conditions. The analyses cover the full spectrum of the academic profession, including part-time jobs and short-term contracts, both in public and private institutions. The book also addresses what universities must do in order to attract young, qualified candidates.
The central issue of this article is the specific character of diplomatic correspondence in the 16th century and, as a consequence, the difficulty in determining whether or not some examples of Ivan the Terrible’s correspondence belong to the realm of diplomacy. There were two distinct lines in Ivan’s diplomatic correspondence — with the rulers of Europe and with those of the conventional “East”; this in addition to the nature of medieval diplomacy as a relationship between the authority and charisma of individual rulers, rather than between independent and equal subjects of international law (as becomes the case by the Early Modern period). In dealing with this problem, this article suggests a comparative analysis of two conditionally distinguished discourses in Ivan the Terrible’s diplomatic correspondence — “Eastern” and “Western” ones. However, the model of correspondence used for contacts between the Muscovite State and the successors of the Golden Horde was frequently being extended to the correspondence with European rulers. This took place in those cases where Ivan believed his “Western” interlocutor unworthy of being granted a status equal to Ivan’s own and, as a result, used in his missives elements of his correspondence with the successors of the Golden Horde, who by then occupied a lower, semi-subordinate position in Ivan’s hierarchy of states. The article lays out conclusions regarding the significance of such examples for the theoretical problem of drawing the boundaries between diplomacy and non-diplomacy in the corpus of Ivan the Terrible’s letters. We show that the the question of how the addressee of Ivan’s missives was viewed – as a diplomatic partner or a “vassal” – was an essential part of the way diplomacy was considered in the 16th century Muscovite State.
The present book is the result of the project International Comparative Study on Education, Career and Migrant Strategies of School Students from Rural Areas in Transition Countries initiated by UNESCO International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education (INRULED) and the Center for Applied Economic Research, National Research University Higher School of Economic (HSE) of Russia in 2010.
The purpose of the given study is to reveal the differences in values, in economic attitudes and in the structures of their interrelations between Christians and Muslims of Russia. To identify models of economic behavior we have developed a special methodology of economic behavior scenarios which allows identifying economic attitudes. Schwartz Value Survey was used for the individual level values exposure. The sample included representatives from Christian (Armenians, Georgians, Ossetians) (N = 60) and Muslim (Chechens, Dagestanians, Kabardinians) (N = 65) nations, living in the North Caucasian region in Russia. Student’s t-test was used to reveal the differences between groups. Cross-confessional comparison showed the significant differences in values on the individual level between Christians and Muslims. Also significant differences in economic attitudes were found. The structures of interrelations between values and economic attitudes are different in these two groups: some scenarios of economic behavior are predicted by values only among Muslims, some others – only among Christians. Different values have a predictive power for explanation of economic attitudes in these two groups.
This study deals with the locative systems of seventeen northern dialects of the Dargwa language (the Dargwa group of the Northeast Caucasian language family). In the first part of the paper I discuss the relations between spatial and non-spatial uses of the localization morphemes. Here I prove that locatives are not equal in their ability to be used in non-spatial contexts and most of such uses concentrate around two morphemes: *cːi INTER and *ki SUPER, while other morphemes either develop a very limited set of non-locative uses or do not develop them at all. The second point of this part is that the semantic source of the non- spatial uses of the locatives is their spatial meaning at the moment of their grammaticalization and not their synchronic spatial meaning. In the second part of the paper I apply statistical methods to the distribution of the non- locative contexts among the morphemes of localization and orientation. Here I show that even though the non-spatial semantics of inter and super are not always connected to their locative semantics, the choice between the two localization is not random and the contexts form two clear clusters. In this section, I also analyze the non-locative uses of orientations and show that the vagueness of the difference between lative and essive that exists in spatial contexts is reflected in non-spatial contexts as well.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.