"Einheimische Begriffe" und Disziplinentwicklung (Herbartstudien, Bd. 5)
Proceedings of the Internationale Herbart-Gesellschaft
Herbarts Allgemeine Metaphysik erscheint 1828-29 als Ergebnis langjähriger Reflexionen und vervollständigt Herbarts konstruktive Kritik des kantschen Werkes, die er bereits in seiner Psychologie als Wissenschaft (1824-25) vorgelegt hat. Herbarts Metaphysik findet zu seinen Lebzeiten kaum Beachtung – woran sich bis heute im deutschsprachigen Raum nichts geändert hat. Aus diesem Grund werden die theo-retischen Grundlagen von Herbarts Metaphysik auf Basis neuerer internationaler In-terpretationen erörtert. Dabei stellt sich heraus, dass Herbarts methodologischer Ansatz und seine relationale Ontologie zur Begründung einer realistischen Metaphysik beitragen. Herbart ersetzt das Inhärenzverhältnis durch eine funktionale Auflösung des Gegenstandes, dadurch rückt sein Werk schließlich in die Nähe zeitgenössischer Diskussionen. Dieser Punkt wird anhand von Paolo Valores Vergleich mit Quines Ontologie gezeigt.
The paper deals with the dynamics of appearance, which is in a constant oscillation between being and seeming. This is an apodictical formal law of the life of consciousness: «so much seeming, so much being». In order to clarify this, we thematize a methodological proposal made by Johann Friedrich Herbart, which would be systematically applied by Edmund Husserl. The proposal consists in «leav- ing any object to oscillate between being and non-being». By developing this proposal, we examine phenomenological work as a praxis aiming at the «enrichment of sense» and a «self-transformation of subjectivity». We conclude the essay by providing some remarks on how phenomenology could fruit- fully appropriate Herbart’s philosophical insights.
The starting point of reference in the article is the iconological analysis, as it was formulated by Aby Warburg (1866-1929). In contrast to those, who claim that only one of two selected by A. Warburg aspects of the method – «apollonian» and «dionisian» – was developed, the thesis of the article, based on the material concerned with the questions of history of medicine, published in the «Journal of Warburg and Courtauld Institutes», outlines the stability of the method in its diversity. The emphasizing of two tendencies, following the development of the iconology: one of them was offered by Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) and was developed in the direction of increasing the proportion of the structuralism theory, the other, the variation of the history of ideas, was focused on the investigation of magic and hermetic practice – confirms the thesis.
The article discusses a little-studied aspect of the history of the Russian émigré Eurasianist movement of the 1920s and 1930s: namely, an attempt to develop holistic “Eurasianist” jurisprudence. The task proved to be much more complex than merely applying Eurasianist ideology to the field of law, as the latter was not a single phenomenon, and had different institutional and especially conceptual dimensions. Eurasianists themselves differed in their approaches to law. These distinctions were based on metalegal grounds, whether in phenomenological sources of the works of Nikolai Alekseev, who argued for legal individualism, or alleinheit theory in the writings of Leo Karsavin, or positivist theory informing the approach by Nikolai Dunaev. Based on Eurasianists’ published works and unpublished archival materi- als, this article argues for the fundamentally contradictory legal views by members of the Eurasianist movement. These contradictions suggest that it was impossible to create a particular “Eurasianist” legal theory on the basis of their writings.
Zimmermann (1824–1898) contributes an important Ästhetik to the history of aesthetic formalism and he is a major representative of Vienna Herbartianism. In my analysis I show, on the one hand, that he aims at delivering a systematic work, based on the insights which Herbart had already provided, without treating them exhaustively. On the other hand―I argue―it is not unproblematic to reconcile Zimmermann’s views with Herbart’s ideas, especially when crucial notions such as ‘form’ and ‘relationship’ are considered. Paradoxically, the distance between the two thinkers ultimately emerges from the essay in which Zimmermann examines the analogy Herbart himself had drawn between music theory and practical philosophy. My conclusion thus is: where Zimmermann broadens Herbart’s theories, pursuing their explanation and systematic completion, he betrays the main issues of Herbartian formalism and philosophy; Herbart’s most profitable theories―concrete formalism and functionalism―are abandoned in favour of abstract, void constructions.
This article explores the idea of the middle class on the memories of Francois Guizot. The idea is presented as a result of research and political activities of French thinker. Much attention is paid to the historical and intellectual context, as well as to the genetic connection of this idea with the preceding and subsequent traditions of its development.
Educational reforms in developed countries are not successful, because we do not have a clear understanding of what is education. The essence of education is the limits of its improvement. Education is understood as the artificial extension of human ability to learn, as the product of learner's own efforts, and finally, as a series of historic forms of labor arrangements. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights are reserved.