Эволюция русской лексики участников фондового и валютного рынков второй половины XIX - начала XXI в.: системный аспект
The supplement to the thesis on Russian stock and currency markets paricipants' lexis formation, content and functionning represents the collected lexical material.
The author considers the evolution of the foreign language borrowings in the official and slang stock market participants' russian lexis since the IInd half of the XIXth century till the beginning of the XXIst century. The borrowed lexical units destiny during the Soviet and modern periods is considered.
A lot of dictionaries of youth jargon (traditionally called youth slang) were published in Germany over the period from 2000 to 2013. They fall into three categories. The first group are annual editions of multilingual dictionaries by PONS and Langenscheidt publishers which give words and collocations used by schoolchildren from Germany, Austria and Switzerland their English, French and Spanish equivalents. These dictionaries, containing from 300 to 1500 words, focus on new entries and generally lack lexicographical information. It is native speakers, who contribute to the new editions by sending words and collocations to editors. These terms are included without any restrictions and this fact is mentioned in the preface to the dictionary. The second group are dictionaries ("Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" and "Das neue Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" from Duden publisher edited by P. Vipperman) organized by topic. They contain words referring to music, popular culture, love and sex, computers and Internet, entertainment and fashion etc. Each topic provides a specific vocabulary used by youth groups who share the same interests and have a similar lifestyle. These lexicographical sources feature thorough word definitions with detailed interpretation of jargonisms, normally in the context, but they do not give any information on grammar and language style, histories of words or verifiable reference. There is usually a website for a topical dictionary and anyone can participate in compiling it. The third group are lexicons by G. Eman who put them together after many years of close contact with young people of different age groups and social classes. Their strong points are complete definitions of entries. He also specifies stylistic register, polysemy, dialect, etymology, though sometimes his explanations lack system. All words and expressions are given in the context. G. Eman also provides synonymous sequences, arranged by topic which could be found in the appendix to "Endgale" dictionary. None of the reviewed dictionaries meets all standards for lexicographical reference. However, despite this shortcoming and diverse lexicographical aspects, dictionaries of German youth language published in the early 21st century are a valuable source for studying this layer of unconventional vocabulary and therefore youth subculture. It should be pointed out that German youth slang is not about specific words and expressions only, it reflects social relations, way of life and culture of young people from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
By the example of the lexico-semantic group 'Stock market goods, their lists, properties, stock exchange documents and rules' the author shows the origin of traders' slang words and expressions and the structural, derivational and lexicological aspects of stock-market participants' lexis system relations.
The paper covers a case of teaching critical reading and speaking to students of Economics, ICT and Mechanics at senior levels at National Research University Higher School of Economics. Relevant tested teaching materials aimed at the development of required competencies in reading and speaking are presented as well as the methodical principles used in elaboration of these materials.
The article compares the slang used by German students in the XIXth century and the slang used by German youth in the XXIth century. The research findings are similarities in lexico-thematic groups and also common tendencies in the way the vocabulary is enriched (metaphors, borrowing and world-building). Every case is proved with examples from dictionaries published in different centuries.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.