Браулион Сарагосский. Избранные письма
This article is dedicated to the II Council of Seville (A.D. 619) and its decisions. This Council was presided over famous Isidore of Seville, a great expert of Classical culture and in particolary in Roman law. Thanks to Isidore the canons of its Council were influenced by the norm of Theodosian Code. In that way the Roman Law became a base of the Canonical Law.
In this book the author explores the social, economic and legal status of the Russian lower clergy (priests, deacons and sacristans), its role in the parish life and the institutional history of the Russian parish in the 16-17th centuries. The institution of proprietary or private churches (German Eigenkirchenwesen) is analysed and compared with the analogous phenomena in Byzantium and Western and Central Europe. Special attention is given to state legislation and policy, which influenced the status of the lower clergy, and the formation of the clerical estate (dukhovnoe soslovie). Various sources have been examined: the tsar’s immunity charters, cadastres, private contracts, letters, literary works, materials from the archives of the bishop’s chancelleries etc.
Biography of D. Laynez (1512-1565), the 2nd general of the Society of Jesus
This article is dedicated to the visigothic symphony, incarnated in the last canon of IV council of Toledo, when the Church took a possibility to form an ideology and to influence the reality. TheparticipantsoftheIVcouncilofToledodecreed that a king must be elected by bishops and nobility, and this fact testifies theirs political ambitions. AtonetheChurch (representedby most educated bishops, for example, Isidore of Seville and his disciples) imagines itself as protector of right king. Theparticipantsofcouncil created an ideal of governor, and the real king was obliged to follow it, otherwise he may deprive himself of the Churchs supporting. Butthejustandmerciful king disposed of Churchs defence: and the state criminal, who had encroached upon his life and throne, where anathematized. The ideas, formulated on IV council of Toledo, were developed in the kings code of law (Liber Iudiciorum), promulgated in 654.