Unsichtbare Spracharbeit. Jugendliche Migranten als Laiendolmetscher. Integration durch »Community Interpreting«
The achievements of the youngsters who interpret between their parents and institutions of the "admission society" are mostly invisible. From this everyday practice a whole spectrum of problems serious every now and then – but also results in potentials. In this bigger empiric investigation up to now unique in the German-speaking space on the subject Vera Ahamer puts new impulses in translation science, linguistics, sociology, educational theory – above all, however, also in the "migration discourse" as well as in practice for those people who deal every single day with this kind of the interpretation.
The author shows that demographic transition is an organic part of civilization developments. Such phenomen as death rate and birth rate, changes in character of migration are connected with stages of development of a civilization.
The report provides a review of sources and quality of statistics on international migration in selected countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. The report was prepared under the responsibility of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in the framework the project “Strengthening national capacities to deal with international migration: maximizing development benefits and minimizing negative impacts”.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The paper presents a project aimed at the development of a Russian Learner Parallel Corpus, discusses the existing analogues, describes the current status and the tasks in which it could be used. The existing parallel corpora contain (comparatively) “correct” translations; whereas the aim of the present project is to create a sufficiently large corpus of imperfectly translated Russian and English texts together with their sources and use it as a tool for translation studies, especially those related to translation mistakes. The new corpus will be a valuable resource for computational linguistics as it provides another way of getting data for evaluation which could be used to improve machine translation systems. As of now, the corpus is available on-line, it already contains nearly half a million word tokens and is growing. The main source of material is translations made by student translators in Russian universities.
In the early twentieth century, a large number of households resettled from the European to the Asian part of the Russian Empire. We propose that this dramatic migration was rooted in institutional changes initiated by the 1906 Stolypin land titling reform. One might expect better property rights to decrease the propensity to migrate by improving economic conditions in the reform area. However, this titling reform increased land liquidity and actually promoted migration by easing financial constraints and decreasing opportunity costs. Treating the reform as a quasi-natural experiment, we employ difference-in-differences analysis on a panel of province-level data that describe migration and economic conditions. We find that the reform had a sizeable effect on migration. To verify the land liquidity effect, we exploit variation in the number of households participating in the reform. This direct measure of the reform mechanism estimates that land liquidity explains approximately 18% of migration during this period.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.