Актуальные проблемы формирования теории управления запасами
For problems of a choice of the best decision at stock management by many criteria, the illustration of phenomena of inadequate optimization in a format of traditional methods is given. Necessity of working out of new approaches to optimization is underlined to give the chance to the manager to eliminate such phenomena.
The article presents a special modification of the EOQ-formula for a diversified EOQ-model of inventory management with account to specifics of lot deliveries. It will allow managers to determine the optimal parameters of the inventory management strategy if it is required to take into account the following features: 1) the possibility of order payment deferral; 2) time value of money at cashflow modelling 3) incomes specifics, when the proceeds come with a delay 4) specificity of storage costs payment (in form of rent or by the occupied storage space). In addition, the article specifies some options related to the possibility of using such a formula if it is necessary to additionally take into account: a) the restriction on the allowable length of the delay in payment of goods, so that the point of receipt of the proceeds did not exceed the corresponding reorder interval duration (on average); b) the vehicle capacity. The presented research materials on optimization of supplies will allow managers to estimate the effect of permissible delays in order payments, delays in receipt of proceeds, and the factor of vehicle capacity on the parameters of the optimal strategy of inventory management. The procedures of EOQ formula modification for inventory management systems are performed in relation to interesting and business-relevant models of this type that correspond to efficient deliveries, where these delays allow to make order payments from revenue at reordering intervals.
We describe vendor managed inventory concept of supply chain management. We propose the idea of using this metodology for the problem of motor fuel distribution from oil depots to filling gas oil stations. The advantages, risks and limitations of the concept introduction for this problem are shown.
The article analyzes the current trends in the economy, associated with the gradual transition of the company from traditional approaches to supply chain management to the "virtual", investigated their underlying causes, as well as an assessment of prospects for the development of this fact. Currently, in most sectors of the supply chain model, used by Henry Ford, it has long lost its relevance. Today is difficult to meet fully vertically integrated company, which independently produces all the parts and components for their finished products, and controls virtually all links in the supply chain independently. The exception may be the companies working in the field of mining. The main advantage of vertical integration is the ability to counter the uncertainty in the external environment by reducing the level of volatility in prices and transaction costs in the supply chain, but at the same time, this form of control will inevitably lead to less flexibility in general and the emergence of additional administrative costs. Market organization relationships in the supply chain and the use of logistics outsourcing strategy, in contrast to maximize capacity utilization and expand the resource base through greater coverage of qualified suppliers. But despite the advantages of this form of interaction between organizations may lead to a large total cost due to transaction costs. Virtual integration can be viewed as an alternative control mechanism, which achieves both operational flexibility and an optimal level of total costs by increasing both external and internal control. Virtual integration necessarily implies a close relationship of logistics and information technology, which allows you to reach a negotiated throughout the supply chain performance of operations and the coordinated planning and control. At the operational level, the use of information technology makes it possible to support interaction between participants in the supply chain when the main logistics operations, and at the tactical level to ensure joint decision-making and monitoring of performance indicators. Currently, the virtual supply chains are showing interest a large number of companies in the long term because they allow you to reduce inventory levels and the execution of client orders, and therefore increase the efficiency of any business. However, virtual supply chains are not only advantages, but also a number of difficulties, including information security risks, the synchronization of information systems, intellectual property rights and others that should be taken into account.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.