Advances in international psychology: Research approaches and personal dispositions, socialization processes and organizational behavior
The paper presents a study of mechanisms of choice in a real life situation of local authorities elections. We have hypothesized that the quality of choice process as reflected through subjective evaluations might differ depending on some personality variables and, in turn, predict the satisfaction with choice and other outcome variables. The dependent variable was the decision whether to go voting at all. This assumption has been proven in a study on non-psychology college students (N=174) tested three times: a week before regional elections, a week after, and several months later. We used the measures of quality of choice and a number of personality inventories (assessing subjective alienation, purpose in life, locus of control, hardiness, causality orientations and some other variables).
As predicted, the qualitative parameters of choice process have been associated with personality variables, and, in turn, predicted the evaluation of outcomes. Cluster analysis (Ward’s method) has split the sample into two distinctive groups by the quality of choice: involved (autonomous) vs. noninvolved (spontaneous) one. Both groups revealed notable differences by personality variables.
Author discusses the most important and controversial issues associated with the project of educational standards for high school: a paradigm shift from "vseobuch" to "actionism", the need for teacher retraining, the changing nature of public control over the school and also the question of when new standards should be the implemented. Special attention is paid to the basic curriculum: subjects studied at a basic or advanced level; the need to reduce the number of existing subjects; rationality of the choice of subjects, which are assumed to be compulsory by the standards. Author also notices that one of the strengths of the new standards is moral and personal development of students.
Organizational justice is one of the key factors ensuring performance of an organization. An organizational justice evaluation influences on organizational attitudes, emotions and behaviors. It is based on social norms pertaining to both the process and the results of communication. Which norms are employees guided? Why do they comply with ones? How can we increase the organizational justice evaluation? In the article these questions are discussed.
The article discusses the process of formation and evolution of the concept of Free will in the period of late Anquity and Middle Ages and also reasons of the fact that this concept became a foundation of European interpretation of personality and social teaching of the Catholic Church. The analysis was conducted on the basis of official legal documents of the Catholic Church, as well as on the basis of writings of Doctor of the Church. The compilation of theological and legal approaches makes it possible to assess influence of the catholic teaching on the formation of legal doctrine and West European mental model in comparative perspective.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.