The increasing resource and transit potential of the Arctic has been drawing more and more attention of both governments of various states and international corporations. Russia shows ambitious plans of Arctic region development. Nevertheless, these plans are closely tied with environmental risks, to which Russia may not be prepared.
The main environmental problems, the Arctic region faces, are: climate change, contamination of sea water with oil and chemical drains, degradation of ecosystems. The rationale to freeze wide-scale Arctic development, primarily oil & gas fields’ development in Russia comes not only from environmental nongovernmental organizations but from economists as well. Negative economic and political conditions of today’s world – is the right moment to do so.
Public participation is an integral attribute of modern public governance, designed to optimize the search for an effective solution and increase the likelihood of its implementation. Today, in the practice of public participation and co-production within the framework of public administration in Russia, electronic platforms are actively used, the analysis of which this work is devoted to. The article explores e-participation platforms in Russia and aimed to answer two research questions. The first question is whether e-participation platforms in Russia represents the autonomous institution to involve citizens into decision-making process or the platforms are the front-end technology which duplicate the existing processes in public administration. The second question is if the agenda discussed at three e-platforms we explored reflects the most pressing socio-economic problems of citizens, and to what extant the citizens can influence it. Three e-participation platforms from three different areas have been explored to answer research questions (Moscow, the Republic of Bashkortostan, Voronezh). The article shows that e-participation platforms we explored represents front-end technology for citizens’ right to apply to state authorities using WWW and receive a response, but the results of such a voting could not be used as the rationale for the official decision making as per Russian legislation. At the same time the topics discussed at the platforms does not reflect the most pressing socio-economic issues of the citizens and the last has no influence on the agenda and the alternatives for voting. The power of citizens is limited to vote\no vote on the agenda provided by state authorities. The article assumed the situation reflects the early stage of adopting e-tools in public participation in Russia focusing on learning and education.
The author, who is one of the architectures of the «500 Days Reform», finds that no results expected from our institutional transformations made over the 2000th could be observed. He also thinks that Russia is to experience the slow evolutionary transformations which would be accompanied with conflicts of opposites, and compromises with oppositions would be inevitable.
In economics the co-production of public goods by local communities, consider quite fruitful for replacement of government failures. The article describes the practice of implementing TOS communities (Territorialnoe Obshchestvennoe Samoupravlenie) projects on co-production of social urban infrastructure. Using the cases of local communities in the city of Kirov and the data on the Russian regions, we demonstrate that the effects of co-production can be multidirectional. We found that local government usually supports TOS communities. TOS allows in terms of municipal budget deficit over the citizen’s participation in funding of infrastructural projects to solve local problems and put-off attention of political active citizens for possible protest activities. The research demonstrates that TOS occurs when three conditions (vectors) form in society: civil responsibility, civil helplessness, and paternalism. In these circumstances, the authorities encourage and subsidize the formal self-organization of citizens that capable singly and under their responsibility to solve problems to which the authorities did not get around. At the same time government is in the position of win-win, on the one hand, it “drops” their responsibilities to citizens (through TOS), and on the other hand gets support of the population. These effects demonstrated in the paper
The main article issue is the reasons for sustainability of Japanese economic model and for one of the highest growth rates in the world. Presented in scientific literature versions and own conclusions are analyzed. Government intervention in private sector as a feature of Japanese economic model is discussed.