In his article the author tries to give a new interpretation of the perception of “new people” Chernyshevsky in the Dostoevsky’s novel “Notes from underground”. The term “new people” has a gospel background. In Russia it was ﬁ rst used by prince Vladimir Baptized. Dostoevsky shows that an ordinary man cannot exist on such a spiritual level.
In this paper, we provide a general account of Plato's later dialectic with its three elements: synagoge, diairesis, symploke. Interrelation of these elements is discussed. The analysis is based mainly on Sophist 253d. We maintain that the dialectical method cannot be reduced to a division by genus and species, but rather is a more complex procedure, which might be considered mostly as a development of the anamnesis theory.
This article represents an attempt of Francisco Suárez to explain whether cognition of single material entities is possible, and what the order and the status of this knowledge is. Essentially, Suárez offers his own solution to the long-standing problem of “how the knowledge about the singular is possible if the true knowledge can only be about the general?”. The peculiarity of his position is that only such knowledge about the singular should be preferred as an original and therefore a more natural state of the cognitive activity of the soul.
The article deals with the notion of political content, the criteria for its selection from policy areas, key political version. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the nature and the variants of political as aesthetic choices.
In his article V.K. Kantor considers complicated relations Russian emigres with these west-european functionaries, who have built organizations, structures, to assist survive Russian intellectuals. Author analyses this problem examining letters of F. Stepun to G. Kullmann. Author also publishes archived letters of Stepun to Kullmann.
This paper is concerned with the theme of salvation in the philosophy and theology of Mordecai Kaplan – an American-Jewish thinker of the XX century and the founder of the Reconstructionist movement in modern Judaism. The notion of salvation is the key element of Kaplan’s philosophy and its analysis is essential for understanding and studying Kaplan’s ideas. Other tasks facing the author of this article include a brief description of Kaplan’s biography, his views on the nature of phenomenon and religion, the main aspects of the Reconstructionist project.
The concept of “Umwelt” coined in science by Jakob von Uexküll is under consideration in the article. Umwelt is specific environment to which every biological individual is adapted and which is constructed by it. Being one of pillars of biosemiotics, this notion demonstrates its methodological force for the development of the modern, non-classical epistemology. According to von Uexküll, Umwelt is built by selection of the meaningful and of the valuable and by involving it in the world of life of an organism; environment is not simply the world of things, but the world of acts of behavior; cognition which is, as a matter of fact, identical to life, is the retrieval of meanings from the world; different living organisms live in different cognitive and living worlds. It is shown that the concept of Umwelt carries profound meanings in itself and can be considered as a prerequisite of development of a wide ecological approach and of the whole range of epistemological notions, such as the connection of cognizing organism and its environment, cognition through action, activity and embodiment of perception, construction in the process of cognition, enactivism.
In the focus of this article is one of the main directions of topical philosophy – posthu-manism. The author distinguishes it from the concept of «transhumanism» and traces its origin, development and current state. If posthumanism was originally concerned with cul-ture (the concept of Ihab Hassan’s criticism), then later he adressed a new ontology. At this point posthumanism approaches such areas of modern philosophy and social theory as ac-tor-network theory and object-oriented ontology. From the last two posthumanism differs in not being satisfied only with the new ontology, which proposes to move away from the tra-ditional anthropocentric concepts such as «man» and turn to «individuals», and offers an ethical and political program (Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti). The author comes to the conclu-sion that posthumanism is an alternative to cultural postmodernism, which excluded nature from the object of its attention. Posthumanists insist that the concepts of culture and nature should be reconsidered. In this sense, posthumanism can be considered as one of the versions of «postmod-ernism». However, many researchers in the XXI century, referring to posthumanism, describe it directly through the products of popular culture, thereby weakening the program of posthuman-ism. But, despite this, the emphasis on the era of «anthropocene» allows posthumanism to aban-don postmodern as a historical category, that is involved exactly in culture, and move to the dis-cussion of completely new topics such as ecology, earth, etc.
Interpretations of facere veritatem by Derrida and Marion share several essential traits. Bothphilosophers refuse to consider facere veritatem as a variant of speech act. For Derrida this is anevent of truth, whereas for Marion it turns truth into an event for the subject. Facere veritatem is
the speech of the Other (Derrida) or the word of God (Marion), being an alien word appropriated
by the subject, or, more precisely, the subject appropriated by this word. Both thinkers have been
infl uenced by Levinas’ interpretation of Augustine’s veritas redarguens as a truth that puts the
I into question. Eventually facere veritatem becomes a paradigm of conversio : the truth thus
created is the truth of conversion and even of the emergence of the subject; the truth beyond all
possible speech; no longer a mere speech act but a structure underlying any verbal expression.
For Marion the embodiment of this structure is the threefold functioning of the liturgical speech
(confession, praise, reading of Scripture). For Derrida the same role is played by literature, in
which poetry and truth, fi ction and witness merge into one, producing a hidden place for truth.
The article introduce translation of John Rawls's research "The Law of Peoples". This lection was written in 1993 and has not been translated into Russian before. This article analyses the conception of international justice extended by Rawls considering its terminology, methodology and basic points. International justice is explored in correlation with rawlsian fundamental theory of justice. But through the special scope conception of international justice based on liberal values goes beyond liberal societies and gives a framework for transformation of international law and policy.
The article is mainly based upon the analysis of two Japanese texts, Jinkokuki (“Records of the people and the provinces”, 16th century) and its later revised version Shin Jinkokuki (“New records of the people and the provinces”), created by a confucianist scholar and cartographer Seki Soko in 1701. The latter is often considered to be one of the first Japanese atlases as Seki not only revised and enlarged the original text, but also added maps to the descriptions of all of the Japanese provinces. Both texts are valued by Japanese scholars as fruitful sources for studies in the history of environmental psychology, or geopsychology, and a careful study of its’ content provides some new information on the ideas and concepts of natural habitats’ influence on the formation of behavioral models and personal qualities typical to the inhabitants of certain areas within Japan in 16th-18th centuries. In the first half of the 20th century some Japanese authors, many of them playing leading roles in the introduction of western science into Japan, were obsessed with the idea of formulating typically Japanese way of thinking and behaving, that would not only differentiate the Japanese from others, but also make the nation consider itself better than those others. The search for roots of yamato-damashii and Japanese uniqueness in terms of relations between the Japanese people and the country’s nature, just as an attempt to make some certain values of the samurai class nationwide revitalized interest in Jinkokuki and Shin Jinkokuki, which were used as an instrument of state propaganda. The second part of this article analyses works by Watanabe Tooru, a psychologist who issued the first scholary publication of these texts and who’s academic career seems to be a one long road to “Records of the people and the provinces”.