In his article V.K. Kantor considers complicated relations Russian emigres with these west-european functionaries, who have built organizations, structures, to assist survive Russian intellectuals. Author analyses this problem examining letters of F. Stepun to G. Kullmann. Author also publishes archived letters of Stepun to Kullmann.
This paper is concerned with the theme of salvation in the philosophy and theology of Mordecai Kaplan – an American-Jewish thinker of the XX century and the founder of the Reconstructionist movement in modern Judaism. The notion of salvation is the key element of Kaplan’s philosophy and its analysis is essential for understanding and studying Kaplan’s ideas. Other tasks facing the author of this article include a brief description of Kaplan’s biography, his views on the nature of phenomenon and religion, the main aspects of the Reconstructionist project.
The concept of “Umwelt” coined in science by Jakob von Uexküll is under consideration in the article. Umwelt is specific environment to which every biological individual is adapted and which is constructed by it. Being one of pillars of biosemiotics, this notion demonstrates its methodological force for the development of the modern, non-classical epistemology. According to von Uexküll, Umwelt is built by selection of the meaningful and of the valuable and by involving it in the world of life of an organism; environment is not simply the world of things, but the world of acts of behavior; cognition which is, as a matter of fact, identical to life, is the retrieval of meanings from the world; different living organisms live in different cognitive and living worlds. It is shown that the concept of Umwelt carries profound meanings in itself and can be considered as a prerequisite of development of a wide ecological approach and of the whole range of epistemological notions, such as the connection of cognizing organism and its environment, cognition through action, activity and embodiment of perception, construction in the process of cognition, enactivism.
In the focus of this article is one of the main directions of topical philosophy – posthu-manism. The author distinguishes it from the concept of «transhumanism» and traces its origin, development and current state. If posthumanism was originally concerned with cul-ture (the concept of Ihab Hassan’s criticism), then later he adressed a new ontology. At this point posthumanism approaches such areas of modern philosophy and social theory as ac-tor-network theory and object-oriented ontology. From the last two posthumanism differs in not being satisfied only with the new ontology, which proposes to move away from the tra-ditional anthropocentric concepts such as «man» and turn to «individuals», and offers an ethical and political program (Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti). The author comes to the conclu-sion that posthumanism is an alternative to cultural postmodernism, which excluded nature from the object of its attention. Posthumanists insist that the concepts of culture and nature should be reconsidered. In this sense, posthumanism can be considered as one of the versions of «postmod-ernism». However, many researchers in the XXI century, referring to posthumanism, describe it directly through the products of popular culture, thereby weakening the program of posthuman-ism. But, despite this, the emphasis on the era of «anthropocene» allows posthumanism to aban-don postmodern as a historical category, that is involved exactly in culture, and move to the dis-cussion of completely new topics such as ecology, earth, etc.
Interpretations of facere veritatem by Derrida and Marion share several essential traits. Bothphilosophers refuse to consider facere veritatem as a variant of speech act. For Derrida this is anevent of truth, whereas for Marion it turns truth into an event for the subject. Facere veritatem is
the speech of the Other (Derrida) or the word of God (Marion), being an alien word appropriated
by the subject, or, more precisely, the subject appropriated by this word. Both thinkers have been
infl uenced by Levinas’ interpretation of Augustine’s veritas redarguens as a truth that puts the
I into question. Eventually facere veritatem becomes a paradigm of conversio : the truth thus
created is the truth of conversion and even of the emergence of the subject; the truth beyond all
possible speech; no longer a mere speech act but a structure underlying any verbal expression.
For Marion the embodiment of this structure is the threefold functioning of the liturgical speech
(confession, praise, reading of Scripture). For Derrida the same role is played by literature, in
which poetry and truth, fi ction and witness merge into one, producing a hidden place for truth.
The article introduce translation of John Rawls's research "The Law of Peoples". This lection was written in 1993 and has not been translated into Russian before. This article analyses the conception of international justice extended by Rawls considering its terminology, methodology and basic points. International justice is explored in correlation with rawlsian fundamental theory of justice. But through the special scope conception of international justice based on liberal values goes beyond liberal societies and gives a framework for transformation of international law and policy.
The article analyzes the “ancient chapters” of The Master and Margarita from the perspective of the category of eventness, which makes possible to explicate the understanding of religious existence essentially revised by Bulgakov. The research maintains that this revision lay in the same direction as the major philosophical quests of the 20th c.; it consisted in giving up the immediate depiction of religious experience and in the attempt to demonstrate the form of the world in which a religious event takes place. The system of research approaches that the article draws upon involves philosophical concepts of M. Bakhtin, S. Kierkegaard and certain aspects of F. Dostoevsky’s literary anthropology. The discussion of the evangelical story of Zacchaeus also sheds new light on the meaningful pivots of the image of Pilate created by Bulgakov’s imagination.
The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modern physics. The traditional statements on time nature and characteristics (discreteness and continuity, fundamental nature, relativity and absoluteness, etc.) are analyzed according to historical and philosophical perspective and in relation to current physics concepts. Interpretation of arising in modern science innovative time concepts has been conducted. Attempt to clarify the possible answers to the question of what the time is in terms of the philosophy of physics has been made. In addition to the classics, the most recent research, directly or indirectly concerned to the time problem, is under consideration in the analysis. Based on the research, the conclusions according to the current state of the problem and its possible solutions have been made.
Metaphysics of Russian culture defi ned the ethical horizon of political practice in Russia. In the early twentieth century philosophers and publicists began discussions about historical guilt and political responsibility of the Russian intelligentsia, the state and the nation. Clarifying the concepts of “patriotism”, “liberalism”, “nationalism”, “freedom”, “democracy”, Russian thinkers have given a moral evaluation of the revolution. Russian intellectual class tends to follow the criterion of historical truth, thus the opposition of the liberal and patriotic discourses had a special moral sense. The basic moral question of political and intellectual struggle focused around the theme of “the fate of Russia”, its historical choice.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.