The article is dedicated to studying the theoretical concepts of status inequalities in health from the moment of their origin to the present day, their prerequisites and mutual influence, key provisions, analytical and explanatory models. The processes of static and dynamic research paradigms formation, their origins, conceptual foundations, and methodological differences are described. Problem of status inequalities in health is associated with the period of Western society’s industrialization, when changes in the structure of labor market were accompanied by increasing of urbanization and urban population density, social inequalities and infectious diseases mortality among representatives of financially deprived groups. The ongoing socio-epidemiological processes attract the attention of researchers, who had practical aim to ensure the safety of living environment. Development of scientific knowledge focused on the problems of individual and common living, leaded to formation of disciplinary-specific grounds for studying the causes of health inequalities. Over the past 40 years studying of status inequalities in health has been accompanied by better understanding of factors that affect health in various status groups and creating research methodology that supposed studying interactions between levels of social organization and mechanisms of individual social and psychological adaptation to social reality changes.
This paper explores the history of migration studies in the USA and in Europe, starting from Chicago school (1910 – 1920-s) and coming to current trends in this scientific field. I cover historical development of assimilation theory, the framework of the “Melting Pot”, then get to 1960-s and the rise of its criticism due to ethnocentric approach. I also show later developments of this concept into revised assimilation theory (Verba, Nee, Moravska), and into segmented assimilation concept (Portes, Rumbaut, Zhou, Waters). I see multiculturalism as a global trend that changed the way of thinking about ethnicity on the both continents and brought to life new theories, like transnationalism in European sociology (Glick Schiller, Foner, Vertovec). I also point at some contradictions of European and American approaches in migration theory in certain aspects, such as the effect of religiosity on integration success (Foner and Alba, Van Tubergen). Russian studies in this field that became numerous in the recent years are disregarded intentionally as they get covered in many other works, while the most recent trends of the international migration theory are not profoundly utilized in Russian sociology yet. Another reason is that they still lack broader theoretical perspective and stay more empirical.
University education is a social institution (similar to any other social system) closely interrelated with "everything else" in the society. The ongoing globalization processes not only radically changes the societies in general but it transforms the very nature of the university education and its "ideal type", as well Today the universities all over the world absorb new sets of values and model. The main trend is that the university becomes a corporation. The university is no longer regarded as the temple of knowledge but the marketplace of educational services. If it is so, then the principle of economic efficiency dominates all other dimensions of the model. The university is a lonely player on the market and its survival is totally dependent on its capability to be successful by means of producing competitive products. Modern (actually post-modern) system of university management installs the principle of TQM (total quality management) which means that every single "cell" of the university (including individual professors, laboratories, any other entities) is tested for its economic efficiency invested in an overall efficiency of the university. AH other characteristics are by far, secondary. From a perspective of students and their parents (i.e. "clients" in the new terminology), the university is a shopping mall of useful knowledge. Today's university provides its clientele with an almost unlimited choice of educational products which are often educational hybrids and composite subject matters hidden in attractive packaging. The process of learning today, in public expectation, should be:
(3) making a self-satisfactory impression on a client that he/she gets the best possible product and "knows everything" (which is false),
(4) widely advertised, etc. (George Ritzer). This situation is understandable because without the masses of clients the university, as a corporation, simply collapses. Such a model of higher education practically eliminates fundamental knowledge by replacing it with useful knowledge. Unpopular fundamental disciplines become the realm of exotic knowledge for a few dedicated individuals, recruited mainly from first generation immigrants, but not for the wide use. The discussed model of a corporate university is not a product of sociological fantasy and science fiction.It exists and works in many American universities and is seriously conceded as a model for the Russian system of higher education. The problem, however, is in the fact, no matter how we like or dislike it, that this model is almost inevitable under the conditions of globalization and comes in one package with it.
Modern youth, their attitudes, norms, and behavioral characteristics are some of the important objects of discussion in social science. It is widely believed that the differences between the current generation of young people and their parents have a revolutionary point. But how well-founded are these opinions? To what extent are these differences realized in the main area - the labor practices of the current young generation? Our article is based on a massive empirical study of young people at work and we seek answers to these questions. We focused on the value and ethical foundations of the behavior of young people in employment: what is the attitude of the modern young person to labor, to the profession, to the organization where they work, what are the rules of interaction with colleagues, supervisors, etc. Our comparative analysis is based on the results of three studies (2016, 2018, 2019) devoted to the study of the work values and practices of contemporary Russian workers. The results of our research have shown that working Russian youth combines features of romantic optimism and maximalism, initiative and insufficient development of personal responsibility, and elements of dependency. At the same time, it was found that there are no really significant and systemic differences between generations in major aspects of labor behavior.
This article examines critical creative labour studies (CCLS) as a theoretical tradition. The article is divided into three main sections. The first section provides an excursion into earlier than CCLS studies on the sociology of art, which formed the specific industrial logic of the view of culture and its producers (R. Peterson, G. Becker, N. Enick, P. Bourdieu). The second section presents the main provisions of critical research of creative work, considers the context of their emergence of this direction (A. Macrobie, D. Hezmondalsh, R. Gill, M. Banks, etc.). Finally, in the third section, the question of the applicability of this research paradigm to the Russian context is considered, methodological recommendations are given for conducting such studies.
The article demonstrates the situations and reveals details of the behavior of tourists in an Orthodox church. The space of the temple is defined as heterotopic, in which the sacred and profane can be ambiguous. Similar problems apply to visitors to these spaces. The first part of the article reviews tourist and pilgrim studies, which describe their experiences. Then it is described why the method of fixing such an experience in the work will be the method of ethnomethodological video analysis, which use by research of naturally occurring interactions. A number of video clips as an empirical material, taken in the Refectory Church of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, which is visited by tourists during non-liturgics time, is selected. The author focuses on the differences in organized visits as part of the tour and self-examination of the sights and objects of the temple. The order of excursion avoids encounters between tourists and pilgrims in the temple, but outside excursions, pilgrims and shrines of the temple is becoming as an object of tourist interest. A number of tourist actions stand out in the work: photographing, viewing and the making sign of the cross through which they interact with objects in the temple. The role of sequence and distance in the process of such interactions, as well as subsequent and preceding actions, is described on the example of video clips taken near the relics of Maximus the Greek. The author draws conclusions about the situationality, contextuality and practical embodiment of the heterotopy of the sacred and profane in the space of that temple.
Gastronomic consumption practices are one of the main ways of forming the corporeal human identity, a marker of his/her cultural and social status. Specificity of food as a material medium of symbols and signs, which are assimilate d at the level of the most direct corporeal experience, determines its consumption as a complex system of communication links. Today, the practice of food consumption in the form of fast food is especially relevant and registers new forms and ways of communication, not only gastronomic, but also reflecting power and new gender relations. It can be argued that it is in the form of fast food (Mac-food) the symbolic content of food overcame and absorbed its physical and technical aspects.
The article explores concerns how the phenomenon of resistance had developed since the Middle Ages until contemporary times. Author analyses different conceptual frameworks within which the resistance was paid the prime attention: starting from Neo-Marxism and the works of early anthropologists of mid 20-th century on liminality through the concept of moral economy developed by James Scott to the concept of resistance within autonomous community as the basis for developing the complex responses towards state regulatory policy. Resistance, initially perceived as an individual act, had gradually been considered as collective action problem (CAP) that enables autonomous community members to successfully counteract the introduction of deterrence state policy. While resistance remains at the core of community policy, there is a difference among three types of autonomous communities in that how the resistance works in practice. The first type of autonomy reflects the historical developments in the countries of Western Europe and the USA, where resistance takes on a symbolic meaning. Second and third types of autonomy are made by the anomie occurred throughout the post soviet space soon after the USSR collapsed in the 1990s. Here the autonomization of communities is seen as a social reaction towards anomie when a new set of informal institutions turned out to be effective and resilient to exogenous regulatory, political and economic shocks. These communities consist of important social entities that bring their own youth socialization, combining the soft and hard forms of informal economy as the main livelihood strategies, thus, challenging the state social and economic hegemony.
This paper explores the academic discussion about local urban activism in contemporary Russia and aims at revealing the specificity of Russian urban activism. The authors move away from the traditional framework of describing Russian urban processes as “post-Soviet” or “post-socialist,” and position Russian studies of local activism in a broader context of similar research conducted in cities of the Global North and the Global South. Building on the international theoretical developments, the authors suggest the concept of “civic infrastructures” as a promising tool for the analysis of local urban activism, distinguishing between “formal” and “informal” civic infrastructures. Formal civic infrastructures include legally regulated forms of civic participation, such as voting, participation in voluntary associations, municipal self-governance, organizing and cooperation of homeowners, participatory budgeting. Informal civic infrastructures include informal associations, friendship networks, as well as worldviews and ideas that are focused on the creation and maintenance of a common good. The authors conclude that the dramatic contestation of urban spaces in contemporary Russia increases and informal civic infrastructures become more prominent. Scholarly evidence confirms the development of civic worldviews, subjectivities, and politicization of urbanites ready and willing to get involved in the process of decision making regarding their cities’ fate. Formal civic infrastructures, however, do not provide them with adequate tools for such participation. Building on the “strategic interaction perspective,” the authors suggest a theoretical model for local activism studies in Russia which includes tools, sensitive to the interactions of players involved in the urban development processes. They conclude that the integration of formal and informal civic infrastructures is necessary for a healthy civil society and efficient resolution of urban conflicts.
Article is dedicated to the problem of defining classical legacy in modern sociology. The nature and constitution of this process is analyzed as everyday framing practice. Some effects arising from classicalization procedures described by cases of embarrassing classicality - interpretations and reinterpretations of Erving Goffmans theoretical works. For this purpose Goffmans frame analysis is applied to itself; theory of framing helps to understand framing of the theory.
This paper deals with the problem of the youth engagement in everyday proenvironmental practices. Reconceptualization of the relationship between nature and society, the increase of environmental problems and their active public discussion encourage individuals to change their everyday practices, embedding in them the principles of careful, responsible attitude to the environment. Unlike many developed countries, in Russia the environmental agenda remains on the periphery of public debate and civic involvement. Still, there is a group of citizens who are more responsive to environmental issues and values, being proactive in daily pro-environmental behaviour. It is largely represented by young people under 30 years old who are ready to put efforts into caring for the environment despite the wasteful attitudes towards nature, poorly developed ecological culture and infrastructure, dominant in the Russian public discourse. In this regard, the present study raises up the question of what, according to the understanding of young people, motivates them to participate in the daily practices of caring for the environment. Aiming to reconstruct the core justifications which young people apply to their everyday ecological practices from the perspective of their life experience, the qualitative methodology is applied. The results of the research are based on the 26 semi-structured in-depth interviews with young Muscovites aged 16–30 years old, collected and analyzed by strategy of grounded theory. Obtained results showed that in the perceptions of young people, environmental engagement is a crucial moral and pragmatic norm of the modern social order, and the individual’s awareness in relations with the environment, while maintaining the rhetoric of anthropocentrism, expresses the stewardship as an active responsibility. For young people, ecological activity constitutes an attribute of the ‘good person’ of modernity homo ecologicus, marking one’s values and lifestyle. By personal practices of caring for the environment they acquire agency and comprehend themselves and their place in the world. Yearning to the ideal modern social actor homo ecologicus, young people constitute their subjectivity.
The article proposes a textual analysis of emergency by-law rule-making and decisions of federal and regional authorities of the Russian Federation, faced with the need to take strict antivirus measures in the spring of 2020 to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Russia. Due to the neutral “silence” of the President of the Russian Federation, the active and targeted activity of the Government of the Russian Federation (including non-financial ones), the unlimited departmental rule-making of Rospotrebnadzor, and the implementation of the “high alert mode” by the heads of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the spring of 2020, emergency and anti-epidemic state measures were introduced significant restrictions activities and movements of persons, including through digital permits, digital control/monitoring and the criminalization of rule violations. At the beginning of the pandemic, restrictions and prohibitions were compulsory and total in nature, legalized the emergency medicalization of everyday life, therefore they received new designations in bureaucratic and philistine discourses - “high alert mode”, “social distancing”, “self-isolation”, “lockdown”, “quarantine”, “social monitoring”, “digital access control”, “distance working/education”. As a result, the heads of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, certain professional groups (doctors, entrepreneurs, officials, controllers) and ordinary people turned out to be extremely vulnerable in the new unsafe and medicalized reality, knowingly guilty of (bio) ethical and legal meanings in their actions and decisions - as (not) introducing emergency/extraordinary government measures, as well as (not) fulfilling professional duties and deviating from numerous and confusing emergency rules. In this paper, I illustrate the bureaucratic logic of key government actors making emergency spring decisions to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) at the beginning of a pandemic, as well as the legality and effectiveness of “tight government regulation”. The materials for the analysis are more than 60 regulatory legal acts and several hundred regulatory and recommendatory documents adopted and amended at the beginning of the pandemic (in the spring of 2020), as well as used to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Russia and Moscow.
Th e study presents an attempt of the complex exploratory analysis of Russian rap based on the corpus of texts of the Russian-language songs of this genre. Th e corpus contains more than 11,000 texts that vary in their date of creation and popularity by more than 500 artists collected by automatically extracting data from web pages (web scraping). Basing on the idea that media and music, in particular, can act as an agent of socialization, the research aims to search for those narratives that are represented in Russian rap and which can have a socializing eff ect on the multi-million audience of the genre, and especially on young people. Th e result of topic modeling using the BigARTM additive regularization model is an extraction of 17 main topics of Russian rap. Th e analysis of the results of the topic modeling shows that among the narratives searching for life path, sad love and death are the most prevalent and those dedicated to homeland and success are the least. To reveal the topics that are transmitted to the largest number of listeners, the prevalence of the topics in the texts of the three key artists (Basta, Timati and Oxxxymiron) of the Russian hip-hop stage is analyzed. From a substantive point of view, the research sheds an unexpected light on Russian rap, shows its features that distinguish it from the American rap, and can be used as a source of hypotheses for the future research on Russian rap. From a methodological point of view, the study becomes an extensive illustration of the possibilities of applying topic modeling in social science research.