The legislation of the Russian Federation, along with international normative legal acts, clearly establishes the rights of women aimed at legal protection of their position in public relations, however, traditional ideas about the social roles of men and women constitute an obstacle to the full enjoyment of rights and freedoms. So, in the state civil service of the Russian Federation, despite the guarantees provided by part 1 of Article 3 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation to ensure compliance with the principle of gender equality in employment, young applicants still encounter difficulties in the admission process. In this article, we check and compare whether government agencies are ready to hire women with pregnancy or family responsibilities, as well as young men with family responsibilities. To do this, we organized and conducted an experiment - a telephone survey of contact persons for vacancies posted on the website of the Federal Portal of Management Personnel, which provide reference information on issues of joining the civil service. On the basis of the experiment, a reproduction of gender stereotypes was revealed on the part of civil servants responsible for communication with applicants for filling civil service positions. Young women receive a “penalty for motherhood” even at the stage of joining the government in conditions of “dominant masculinity”.
The paper considers the specifcs of the construction of the same-sex marriage discussion which is a focus area for LGBT. The empirical basis of the study is news stories reported by four Russia newspapers during the legalization of same-sex marriage in the USA. The theoretical basis of the study is the framing theory which describes the construction of logic of news stories perceived by the audience. The author provides a cluster analysis of the most highlighted topics.
The study shows that the discussion is determined by four frames: danger frame, «neutral» frame, moral frame and equality frame. The most commonly used frame is the danger frame: the spread of same-sex marriage is perceived as an effect of external inﬂuences that poses a threat to state and society. The second most commonly used frame is «neutral» frame used by those authors who try to be non-judgmental and whose news reporting is limited to fact-based information. The frames of moral and equality, mainly typical for the American media, are rare in the Russian media. The moral frame refers to ethical and religious condemnation of same-sex marriage. The equality frame highlights the importance of giving equal rights to homosexuals. On the whole, the Russian media narrative devoted to same-sex marriage appears to be either negative or neutral.
The article is devoted to online fundraising among Russian NGOs and the role of factors facilitating or impeding fundraising. What is referred to as ‘online fundraising’ is the activities aimed at at-tracting resources via the Internet need-ed for the implementation of non-profit projects and programs of non-profit organizations. The aim of this paper is to describe online fundraising trends in Russia and abroad and to summarize empirical studies devoted to determi-nants of the use of fundraising by NGOs. The paper is based on a nationwide sur-vey among Russian NGOs conducted in 30 subjects of the Russian Federation (N = 1000). Binary logistic regression is used to test hypotheses about the im-pact of the selected factors on the use of online fundraising by the Russian NGOs. The findings reveal predominant role of factors characterizing the interaction of NGOs with the external environment compared to traditional advantages, such as a large number of employees or a strong resource base.
Childlessness as a social and demographic phenomenon is a widely studied topic in social sciences. A big splash of attention to this topic happened in the 70-80-years of XX century, during the unprecedented increase of childless women and couples in society, but gradually the interest waned. However, in the early 21st century new wave of researchers addressed the problem of childlessness becoming interested not only in the level of ultimate childlessness, but in the consequences of a childless lifestyle.
In this article we will present the main approaches to the definition and explanation of the phenomenon of childlessness. The entire article is based on the review of international studies, since Russian demographic and social science studies of childlessness are almost inexisent, except for Shipman R. I., L. E. Darski, Bedniy M. S.However, explanatory component in these Russian works is insufficient.Key words: women's childlessness, postponement of childbearing, infertility
The foreign scientific researches of childlessness are many, but most of them are based on theoretical approaches that are consistent with the objective reality of 10-20-years ago. We are seeing a lack of trying comparison phenomenon of childlessness with many other phenomena and areas of human life.
Undoubtedly investigate any problem in all its aspects, given an infinite number of factors is not possible. Therefore, a review of existing approaches to the explanation of childlessness, their connection allows us to get a general idea of what stage of scientific understanding and interpretation is the phenomenon of childlessness.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between individual’s power status and economic status, his/her belonging to a professional group and educational level. The study describes a method of construction of a scale to measure the power status of the working population in modern Russia and provides the results of its implementation. The study reveals that the power status of most of Russians has zero value; and despite the fact that in modern Russian society representatives of the first occupational group according to the ISCO08 classification (leaders) have the highest scores on the power status scale, representatives of other occupational groups also possess this status. Besides, the power status determines individual’s economic position, and this relationship is dependent on individual’s professional skills and can be different across different occupational groups. The empirical basis of the study is the data of the 24th of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) conducted in late 2015.
The article introduces the basic theses of the annual conference organized by the British Sociological Association (BSA) Sociology of Religion Study Group named «Foundations and Futures» in 2015. It analyzes the changes in the academic community of British sociologists of religion for the past forty years. In particular, it discusses the structure of the research group, the scale and format of academic discussions. The author notes the shift in the subject of scholarly debates in British sociology of religion. In particular, the research subject of the academic community shifts from the classification of sects and cults to the subject of spirituality and the religiously unaffiliated. Other popular topics for academic discussion are religion and gender, religion and culture, methods of teaching religion. All these topics as well as the question of the methodology of religious studies among youth and religious literacy were discussed at the meeting. Particular attention was given to the transformation of religion in British, specifics of British secularization, Christian cultural heritage, the shift from religious obligations to religious consumption, the influx of migrants (G. Davie). A special focus was placed on the increase in the number of «religious nones» population in Britain, its characteristics in terms of structure and values as well as their classification are given (L. Woodhead, N. Madge).
The paper is focused on certain aspects of media sociology. The 250-year history of using by mass-media of questioning method in Russia is a fact well-known to journalism historians but not known in sociological community. The article highlights the key milestones in the development of interaction between mass media and sociologists of the Russian Empire, the USSR, and the Russian Federation since 1765 up to 2000. The "Grushin model" term is introduced to describe the activities of the sociological units headquatered at major media editorial boards; the model involves a combination of the media audience research coupled with public opinion polls and researchers' publication activity. This is the model persued by B.A. Grushin, one of the founders of the Institute of Public Opinion at the Komsomolskaya Pravda Editorial Board in 1960-1967, who conducted regular public opinion polls and published their results in the Kovsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and scientific journals and books. A number of undisclosed facts about the sociological activities of three biggest Russian TV and Radio companies in 1990s, including the first Russian exit poll conducted by the Russian State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK) during the 1993 State Duma elections (first in the Post-Soviet Russia), are presented in the paper.
A resonance publication, containing criticism of the quality of Russian polls, is reviewed; doubtfulness of the critical argumentation is revealed.
One of the advantages of com puterassisted and online data collection tools is also an opportunity to obtain a large array of information about the collection process, i.e. paradata. The article reviews the works employing paradata in various research areas. The author defines and classifies paradata and identifies the basic directions where paradata can be used paying attention to restrictions and collection opportunities. In conclusion, the author gives practical suggestions for the effective use of para data as a research tool.
The review will be useful and interest ing both to academic and marketing researchers and methodologists (along with practitioners). The paper will devel op a better understanding of this data type, opportunities, constraints and fu ture prospects related to its uses.
In the contemporary world where social media became one of the key sources of information about offline reality, a rally can be performed without even leaving your house. That is why the discussion participants and the audience reflect on the problem of ‘authenticity' of the virtual reality and political actions it provides. The users ponder the question whether virtual activism is relevant, what conditions make virtual political action ‘real' and ‘accomplished', i.e. they try to define the status of virtual reality and the boundaries between the ‘real' and the ‘virtual', the ‘original idea' (in E. Goffman's words) and the ‘falsifi cation'. This reframing results in a redef inition of what activists, city inhabitants and lawenforcementbodies considerto be a ‘political action'. The article considers how the perceptions of social media activism change and to what conflicts those changes can lead.
In this work, authors analyse the evaluation of pilot phase of the survey transition from the Pen and Pencil Interview method (PAPI) to Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method using a tablet within the project "Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey" (RLMSHSE) made by interviewers and supervisors. The analysis made using data gained from 13 interviews with interviewers, 3 interviews with supervisors, and a survey conducted on 50 interviewers. The main advantages of CAPI method are: a significant reduction in the cost of the field phase (especially in the long term), increasing the speed of data transmission and processing, and in some cases improving the quality of data (for example, increasing the proportion of meaningful answers to sensitive questions about an alcohol consumption and an income). However, the transition to a data collection using tablets also involves some risks. The main CAPI disadvantages are an increase in the perceived length of an interview; a loss of flexibility in the process of filling in the questionnaire; unease or fear, as well as an increased cognitive overload of the interviewers. Also, the use of tablets associated with such technical difficulties as long response time of a tablet, full or partial data loss, difficulties with GPS position location.
The paper is addressed the problem of the elaborated concepts shortage which deals with the analysis of multivariate associations among categorical variables. Meanwhile, such associations are rather common in sociological research what is argued by a corpus of methodological works. In them, it is grounded the necessity of the analysis of multivariate associations among categorical variables. Nevertheless, sociological experience in such an analysis is pretty poor as well as its theoretical generalization. In this study, we have tried to fill this gap by comparing the three methods: CHAID, log-linear analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. The methods were compared at both theoretical and empirical levels. The empirical objective was to create a portrait of various Russian political parties’ electorate using the data of the European social research conducted in 2016. By bringing the results of the application of methods to the form of categories combinations and by formulating numerical criteria for the comparison, the study allowed to identify the most effective method in two types of analytical tasks: description and forecasting. According to the results of the study, multiple correspondence analysis was the most effective in descriptive tasks, and log-linear analysis was the most effective in forecasting. The latter conclusion contradicts the currently predominating opinion regarding the CHAID’s efficiency in cases when a target variable is presented in data and, therefore, has high practical significance for the further development of the idea of building high-precision predictive models in sociological research.
Conceptual workings of sociologists and historians on the issues of generation and intergenerational transmission of cultural patterns are summed up in the article. The following issues are considered: socio-cultural context of the emegence of the concept "generation" in its modern meanings and the main landmarks in the history of "generation problem" research; semantic structure of the notion in its empirical use and in various perspectives of stating the problem by researchers in the West and in Russia; the issue of generation and the generation gap in Russia's society and first of all in the Soviet and post-Soviet societies as a historically established mechanism of self-determination through ostentatious distancing from the generalized partner and symbolic lowering the importance of innovative action. A particularistic construction "fathers and sons" historically established and fixed by the authority of literature classics hampers the possibilities of systematic rationalization and therefore institutionalization of the meanings of social and cultural changes.
This article develops a new theory of polymedia in order to understand the consequences of digital media in the context of interpersonal communication. Drawing on illustrative examples from a comparative ethnography of Filipino and Caribbean transnational families, the article develops the contours of a theory of polymedia. We demonstrate how users avail themselves of new media as a communicative environment of affordances rather than as a catalogue of ever proliferating but discrete technologies. As a consequence, with polymedia the primary concern shifts from the constraints imposed by each individual medium to an emphasis upon the social, emotional and moral consequences of choosing between those different media. As the choice of medium acquires communicative intent, navigating the environment of polymedia becomes inextricably linked to the ways in which interpersonal relationships are experienced and managed. Polymedia is ultimately about a new relationship between the social and the technological, rather than merely a shift in the technology itself.
In the context of aging one of key purposes of social policies in different countries is to improve subjective wellbeing of older generation as an important characteristic of quality of life. Social ties and social activities are essential to subjective wellbeing in the old age. The article investigates the influence of formal and nonformal social activities on the levels of happiness among people aged 50 and over in the European countries and Russia. Analysis is based on the data of the sixth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS, 2012). Multilevel models were used to study countryspecific variations. Findings show that both components of social activity have positive impacts on the levels of happiness, however nonformal social activity (interactions with friends and relatives) plays a greater role than formal activities (volunteering). For the most part, the confidence intervals of crosscountry residuals do not cross the zero line; this points to substantial differences in the countryspecific levels of happiness and proves the feasibility of methods used in the study.