Based on economic-sociological, marketing, and strategic management literature, we combine two classifications of inter-firm relations (horizontal and vertical) and propose the original typology of four ideal types of inter-firm exchange. The quantitative prevalence and the comparative economic efficiency of each ideal type are estimated using indicators of sales dynamics, changes in commodity range and competitive positions. The empirical analysis is based on data from a standardized survey of 684 corporate managers (of retailer and supplier firms) operating in Russia in the food and non-food markets conducted by the HSE in 2016. The analysis revealed high prevalence of building intensive inter-firm relations in the supply chain and low prevalence of network connections with competitors. Additionally, the combination of horizontal relationships with competitors and building vertical relationships in accordance with the concept of relationship marketing is associated with the highest rates of economic efficiency.
Evolution of the modern labor market creates new risks, including socio-psychological, among which workplace stress has a special place. In order to prevent productivity and financial losses, company management needs to handle the new type of risk. Existing technologies of stress management proposed by psychological literature are insufficient. We elaborate a new group of theories that consider workplace stress as a social problem and propose that not only individuals but also organizations are responsible for regulation of stress-based risks. The paper describes key approaches to stress research and systematizes different levels of stress factors including organizational and macrosocial factors. We then present and analyze European models of stress management on the firm level and the elements of government policy for the workplace stress regulation and highlight the key research gaps that specifically important in the Russian context.
The article examines the relationship between HRM-practices and “social” and “economic” effectiveness of Russian business organizations. The first part of the paper reviews international conceptual approaches to analyzing HRM-practices in context of organizational performance and relevant research results. Special attention is paid for critical analysis of research methodology. In the second part, results of empirical study in 80 Russian organizations are presented. Using multilevel data the authors conclude that during economic recession after 2008 there was positive lagged effect of HRM “bundles” of hiring, training, and assessment under the condition of existence of “positive” labour practices in organizations.
The successful activities of any commercial organization, in particular the bank, are based on a clear corporate financial architecture: an effective financial strategy and corporate governance system (relationship management, board of directors and shareholders). CEO is the main representative of the bank and a reflection of its success or failure in the market. In this regard there is a question: what influences CEO turnover? Is it related only to the bank’s financial performance or it includes the system of corporate governance developed in the credit institution? In few studies on this topic, one of the main instruments of corporate governance and its effectiveness is just the possibility of changing the CEO because of weak results of the organization. If an inefficient manager is removed from the management of the bank, then corporate governance may claim to be effective. In this paper, the study of these issues was carried out on the sample of 336 Russian banks in the period of active revocation of licenses (2014–2016) and cleaning the banking sector from unscrupulous participants. It was shown that the high operational efficiency of the bank and the high share of the CEO in the equity capital reduce the probability of CEO turnover.
This paper investigates how owners and managers of Russian SMEs understand the terms “social responsibility” and “business ethics”. Also key features of SMEs’ responsible behavior are examined. An investigation, which laid the background of the paper, included gathering primary data through 57 in-depth interviews with representatives of SMEs from various industries. Research results indicate a gap that respondents have while identifying a subject of responsibility in their own definitions of social responsibility and business ethics, and in practical activities of their companies. Practically every second respondent identified ethical conflicts in their business practice and was involved in resolving them. This allows to conclude that ethical responsiveness is quite high among owners and managers of Russian SMEs. Socially responsible and ethical behavior of these companies is aimed at achieving long-term strategic advantages for businesses through constant care about customers and employees and fulfilling requirements of legal authorities. Social responsibility of small and medium enterprises in Russia is mostly desultory and related to core businesses of these firms.
The article continues a discussion on personal and corporate values in management which was begun in the article "Corporate Values in Management of the Russian Companies". Focus is made on values of managers and their comparison with values of the companies in which they work. The empirical base of research consists of survey data of 83 top, middle and low level managers which were collected in the spring of 2013. Results of the research indicate the potential conflict of values orientations of managers and the companies that calls into question the implementation of management-by-values in the Russian companies. They also point out a need of additional research into a degree of organizational commitment and involvement of the managers who implement the companies’ strategies.
The paper is aimed at examining the market reaction on announcements about dividend payments of Russian companies. Though there are numerous papers devoted to this problem, their results are controversial, and they are rather related to developed markets than to developing economies. The understanding of signals that dividend announcements give companies’ shareholders and potential investors is important because it helps to improve the quality of investment and financial decisions.
The peculiarity of this paper is that different sectors of economy are analyzed separately. The difference in reaction in different sectors of economy is revealed. The research is based on the event study methodology. The data sample consists of 115 announcements of Russian public companies for the period of 2009-2013.
Co0existence of the two basic strategies of the Russian companies - isolation from the state and close cooperation with the state - is discussed and confirmed in this article. The author analyzes influencing factors and possible ways of realization of these strategies and draws the analogy with exit and voice strategies explored by A. Hirsman. It is shown that under the conditions of weak state performance both discussed strategies are informal and lead either to tax evasion and moving of business activities into the shadow economy or to the «state capture» phenomenon. Both privatization of the state and its evasion result in the budget crisis as well as in drastic social and political shocks which bring out the demand for the strong state in the business community itself. However, in the absence of political competition and democratic control mech0 anisms increasing of the state power takes place in the form of bureaucratic consolidation along with creating the preconditions for informal «business capture» by the state authorities. Never0 theless, high0level openness of the economy and heterogeneity of the state body itself provide the business with the wide range of possible strategies aimed at the interaction with the state. The article explores the hypothesis of these strategies becoming more formal and public comparing to the 1990s. Isolation from the state will take form of the legal business internationalization (including selling shares to foreign investors, Russian direct investment into foreign economies, etc.). Cooperation with the state will be more efficient in case of switching from traditional individual lobbying of private interests to rational collective actions aimed at providing necessary grounds for sustainable economic development in their sectors, industries and regions.
Ageism at the Russian Labour Market: Wage Discrimination This paper analyses ageism at the Russian labour market, in particular, wage discrimination. We conduct empirical study based on the data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS HSE), years 2004–2015. We apply econometric methods, using Mincer equations and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. The results confirm the wage discrimination for elder workers: for males it starts from 45–54 years and for females from 55–64 years. Our analysis also reveals possibilities to compensate age discrimination by means of specific job tenure and education. The paper concludes with recommendations for employers’ and public policies with regard to an ageing labour force.