The article is dedicated to the issue of subjective poverty predictors and answers the question whether the main factors of absolute poverty lead to subjective poverty as well. The paper describes the main factors of absolute poverty according to the literature review and tests them using binary logit regressions for both cases of absolute and subjective poverty. Based on logit regressions it is shown that the typical factors of absolute poverty do not lead to subjective poverty. The group of the subjectively poor is formed by representatives of all income groups of the modern Russian society. The paper also demonstrates the difference between two analyzed phenomenons basing on econometric and substantive analysis. It is concluded that the subjective and absolute poverty are the different phenomena, subjective approach to poverty can not be directly used for the purposes of social policy.
The youth including college students being a group starting to consume alcohol is of special interest to researchers. This paper examines the types of alcohol consumption demonstrated by Moscow college students and the factors determining said types. The research focuses not on the amount of alcohol consumed as is the case with the majority of existing works, but actual practices, understood according to Bourdieu as learned behavior schemes, disclosing the key ways of social existence of a group. The typology is based on frequency of alcohol consumption, type of alcohol drinks consumed, volume, place and time (day of the week), indulgence levels and conditions of alcohol consumption (the role of social interactions). The study was aimed at discovering which factors determine the differences in alcohol consumption practices in a social group homogenous by certain demographical indexes. Typological analysis of student alcohol consumption showed that alcohol consumption practices are to a larger degree determined by social factors than economic or demographic ones. Such social factors as: intense consumption of alcohol by the student’s social circle (partner, friends, father), nature of relations in the family, leisure activity type (mass entertainment) and the notion that public alcohol consumption is normal – have a positive influence. Having experience of problems caused by alcohol consumption, «cultured» type of leisure activity and intense alcohol consumption by the student’s mother have a negative influence on the intensity of student alcohol consumption.
The article is based on a survey of 700 Russian high-schoolers from 10 cities and 6 focus-groups of Moscow college students and analyzes yuong people`s attitude towards the major issues of literature instruction at school. School manages tj establish the value of literature, including classical Russian literature, but given the current approach it rarely manages to include an interest in reading, a desire ti read. Teenagers would like literature classes to be different of from other school subjects, since in their opinion literature doesn`t imply ready-made, right answers to the questions raised in literary works. they want to have a chance to express their own opinions; many respondents do not believe that such open discussions necessary require reading full works of literature. Most respondents clail that the teaching of literature at school is based on coercion, which causes fear, inner protest or full tejection which influences their attitude towards reading fiction in general and Russian classics in particular.
The analysis of populism as a phenomenon and its evolution in contemporary Russian politics
Electoral populism on Russian elections (by Alexander Kynev). The article analyzes electoral populism in Russia as an electoral technology element. In this case the focus is not on populism as a discourse but rather on populist practices. Despite this distinction, populism as a discourse and populism as practices (of electoral populism) have traits in common as well. Both are based on the desire to exploit mass (popular) myths, fears, misconceptions and phobias using them to set one’s self off against the demonized «other» (elite, part of society), to simplify and primitivize problems and notions about the solutions thereto, often creating fake hopes and illusions and even fears. Electoral populism on Russian elections is divided by the author into populism of the authorities and that of the opposition based on the technologies, ideas and slogans used. Populism of the authorities is usually in turn divided into threat populism, promises populism and demonstrative play act populism. Populism of the opposition in Russia unlike that of the authorities is almost always one of promises and is limited by the dependence of the Russian opposition on the authorities both legal, financial and organizational. Thus it almost never is anti-elitist in nature, since in that case the party or particular citizen quickly lose the ability to participate in elections. One of the popular oppositional technologies in Russia is collecting signatures during the election campaign, often to effect the resignation of this or that official or to demand a referendum which a priori cannot be held, or the ideas of which cannot be realized. One of the key lines of oppositional populism in Russia is introduction of flagrantly impracticable or unacceptable law initiatives, guaranteeing only a mention in the media and making the scandalous news. Besides the above scale, the examples of electoral populism listed in the article have a certain time and frequency of use localization as well.
The electronic petition portals that have appeared in the last ten years provide not only a new and very promising channel for political communication and political participation, but also an opportunity to study topics of public interest. The aim of this article was to study the thematic representation of citizens' interests in electronic petitions, their regional specificity and voting dynamics. In a study based on 9802 texts of electronic petitions published on the Russian Public Initiative portal from 2013 to 2018 topics of public interest, their dynamics and regional specifics are considered. Analysis of the texts of the petitions using thematic modeling revealed 14 main topics. An analysis of the inequality of the votes in support of petitions belonging to a topic, using the Ginny coefficient, showed a high inequality in distribution of votes. During the study, we run analysis of all petitions and petitions that received the highest support. The analysis showed the leading positions of the topics: “Legislation”, “Politics”, “Work” and the presence of regional features in the petitions submission. Three types of topics have been identified that demonstrate: stability, decline and growth of interest.