In the present study, the authors explore the process of object thought generation based on the understanding of ‘thought’ as a need-emotional-intentional substance that reflects the relation between the object and its characteristics. Theoretically, the research is grounded in the assumption that the object image is a thought substance and is recognized as an image-substance. It is noted that, as a product of the activity of the subject of perception, the process of thought generation is characterized by individual differences in both quantitative and qualitative terms. The main objective of the study was to investigate the processes of generation of object thoughts, i.e. thoughts that arise when perceiving a specific object. 20 students of a Moscow University aged 18-20 years took part in the study. Subjects were asked to describe the object as fully and accurately as possible highlighting all of its attributes (properties) that they could find. The experiment was conducted with each subject individually. Two parameters in the description of the object were taken into account: the number of the object attributes generated and the time spent on the task. The experimental data show that the number of object attributes named decreases with time. Hence it is shown that there is a relationship between the productivity of generating attributes and the time of their generation. The number of thoughts / attributes generated in the second and third minutes is key in determining the final result of the object exploration. Differences in production of object attributes typically referred to its size and shape. Quantitative differences in thought generation process between individual subjects are considered to be the main results of the study. In different subjects, thoughts related to the same object differed not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In the process of perception, each subject produced their own set of object thoughts. There is a reason to assume that the observed individual differences in the production of object attributes are related to individual intelligence levels.
Migration processes in today’s world are developing rapidly, and different countries respond to this reality in different ways. Some are more open to migrants and their integration, while others are less welcoming. Various effects of integration migration policy, primarily for migrants, were studied in the social sciences. The connection of integration migration policy with the attitudes of ethnic majority towards migrants has been studied less. There is evidence that multicultural policy of society is related to positive attitudes towards migrants and a reduction in perceived threat. On the other hand, there is evidence that the open immigration policy of the society may be resisted by the some representatives of the host population. Based on data from European countries, we examined the relationship between the 8 indicators of immigration policy that make up the integration policy index (MIPEX) and the three variables that characterize attitudes towards migrants and migration (the permissibility of migration, the benefits of migration, institutional support for migration). In the study we used data from the integration migration policy index (MIPEX) for 2014, as well as indicators of attitudes towards migrants in 17 Euro pean countries according to the European social survey ESS (more than 30,000 respondents) for 2016. This design allowed us to divide the cause (immigration policy) and the possible consequence (attitudes to migrants). From the ESS data, we have chosen only the answers of the representatives of the ethnic majority. Multilevel structural equation modeling with MPLUS software was used for data processing. The results of the study showed the ambiguity of the relationship of the MIPEX index and its components with different attitudes of the host population towards migrants and migration. The paper discusses which aspects of integration policy (on the example of European data) have a positive and which have negative relations with the attitudes of the host population towards migrants.
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is frequently used as a convenient model for studying processes of decision making and prognosis. Clinical studies generally provide support for Damasio’s “somatic markers” hypothesis. Many studies stress out the leading role of emotional components of IGT performance regulation in comparison with intellectual components. In our study the verbal, fluid and general intelligence were measured on a sample of adult subjects (n = 116) from the non-clinical group. Using linear regression, we showed that intelligence was a significant pre- dictor of the successful decision making in IGT, in particular in three last blocks. Verbal IQ also became a positive predictor of the preferences of "good" decks (in block 4). However, intelligence did not significantly predict success in the earliest stage of the game, when the game was the most undefined and cognitive markers haven’t been revealed yet. Thus obtained results reflect the dynamics of decision-making components and changing in the intelligence impact in decision- making regulation. Higher intelligence provides more accurate cognitive representations of the task, choices of correct decks and as a result gaining more money in the task. We conclude by not- ing that the emotional influences and regulation predicted by the somatic marker hypothesis probably have the leading role at the earliest stages of decision making under uncertainty, where prognostic activity is not yet defined through cognitive markers. Uncertainty reduction related to the formation of game strategies through the large number of trials allows cognitive factors of adaptation and orienting in probabilistic environment take the leading role in decision-making regulation in IGT.
The constructs of autonomous and controlled motivation as introduced in Self-Determination theory, and their application to psychology of religion are described. Studies in this field confirm general findings that depending on the quality of motivation, the same actions can have drastically different psychological well-being outcomes. They also touch upon specific religious issues like literal or symbolic interpretation and extemism.
The empirical part of the paper introduces a Russian adaptation of the autonomous and controlled motivation of religion questionnar (Internalization of Religion - IntRel).
The goal of this paper is to explore the role of culture in the process of civilization and development of various countries. It is argued that scientific research on the effect of social institutions, culture, value systems on the development of innovative economics may improve founding principles of the state politics and environment that facilitates creativity of Russian people. Culture is argued to be accepted by an individual at three levels, specifically: 1) public opinions and moods, 2) concepts and aptitudes, and 3) values; furthermore, a schematic model of a culture is suggested. Following the work of G. Hofstede, R. Inglehart and S. Schwartz four possible scales of measuring cultures are suggested: individualism - collectivism, freedom (equality) - hierarchy (order), openness to changes - conservatism (traditions), self-actualization (self-accomplishment) - harmony (equilibrium).
The article presents the results of a study which was carried out on a Russian sample and dealt with a new sociopsychological construct «social axioms». The study showed that the universal structure of social axioms revealed by M. Bond and K. Leung in their cross-cultural studies is replicated on the Russian sample with some changes and it has certain specificity. In addition the authors have revealed some interrelations between the social axioms and the socio economic and sociopolitical beliefs of Russians.
The mediating role of attitudes toward personality traits in the relationships between corresponding traits and painting preferences was studied. Attitudes toward traits represent bipolar (positive vs. negative) evaluations of a given trait. In this study, the crucial emphasis was made on openness to experience which, as the extant literature reports, is a key predictor of artistic preferences and positive attitudes toward art in general. 110 participants aged 20-30 studied reproductions of 20 paintings related to five painting schools including hyperrealism, realism, impressionism, surrealism, and abstract art.. A principal component analysis revealed two latent variables of preferences for 14 out of 20 paintings such that the former component characterized conventionally traditional genres whereas the latter component characterized conventionally mental genres comprised of surrealism and abstract art. The preference for traditional genres positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, and openness as well as with attitudes toward each of the five traits. On the contrary, the preference for mental genres correlated with openness and attitude toward openness only. The effect sizes provided evidence that attitudes toward traits may be more substantial predictors of painting preferences than the traits themselves. Moreover, in line with the hypothesis, positive attitude toward openness eliminated a direct effect of trait openness on the preferences of traditional genres fully and mental genres partially. Similar mediating effects were found a posteriori in the context of traditional genres for extraversion, agreeableness, and attitudes toward these traits. The authors presume openness to experience to be a unique personality predictor when paintings differ from routine visual perception are in the limelight such as mental genres mentioned above. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
An article separates the meaning of faith as the most significant psychic phenomena, religion as a cultural form of «spiritual navigation» (V.M. Rozin) and church as a social institution. The psychological distinction between the «external» declarative and the deep «internal» religiousness is emphasized, as well as the importance of psychology in assessing the degree of authenticity of religious orientations.