Data from the Federal Statistical Sample Survey of Employment of Vocational Education and Higher Education Graduates is used to measure the gender wage gap and analyze the factors explaining gender inequality. The Mincer equation with Heckman sample selection bias correction as well as the Blinder–Oaxaca and Neumark decomposition methods are applied to measure gender differences in earnings. Findings show that women are paid 18–20% lower than men, the educational and socio-demographic characteristics as well as labor market factors being controlled for. The gender wage gap is largely dependent on education attainment, reaching 25% among graduates from skilled-worker vocational programs, 20% among mid-level professionals, and 18% among college graduates. Decomposition of the gender wage gap allows assuming an essential proportion of unexplained differences that may arise from discrimination and unobservable factors.
The authors analyze results of an empiric study of state identity of Saint-Petersburg higher education institutions’ graduates. The conclusion is validated in the article that a today’s type of graduate does not contribute to state identity formation, and its key elements (a cognitive, an emotional-evaluative, a regulatory-axiological and a behavioural ones) are disintegrated: strivings to increase young people’s knowledge of the state, to develop their concept of due and right do not change their course of action in relation to the state, and demonstration of a certain level of knowledge is neutralized by distrust to current political day-to-day realities, which causes formal perception of the state as of something outer and adversary.
Based on results of TALIS‑2013, of which Russia was a participant for the first time, we analyze demographic characteristics, length of service and working load of school principals, their competencies and opportunities for professional development, as well as working conditions, duties and working priorities. We also discuss how principals participate in teacher performance assessment and delegate their school management responsibilities, which resources they need, and how they assess the ethos of their schools. Research was conducted in 14 regions of Russia and revealed different levels of leadershipс potential in educational institutions. The recent changes to the education system (new Federal Law “On Education”, new Federal State Educational Standards) require principals to work in a transformational leadership style, but only few of the respondents succeed. Principals prefer micromanagement” and interacting with individual teachers, not staff groups. Authoritarianism and unwillingness to delegate power are the major handicaps to transformational leadership of schools principals. There has been no established system for school principal training in Russia so far. Only some of the regions reported to have trained over 20 percent of candidates prior to employment; meanwhile, there were regions with no training available to principals before the start of their career. It is imperative that the school principal training system involve teaching teambuilding, power delegation and distributed leadership skills.
The patterns of knowledge application in new situations are explored from the perspectives of modeling and transfer. We provide an overview of studies to compare these two conceptions and get a comprehensive idea of which psychological processes are involved in knowledge application, what will change in research and teaching practices if the conceptual frameworks change, and how these conceptions can contribute to each other. We show that analyzing the problem structure and comparing problem models in different representational systems are the key prerequisites for a successful knowledge application in both conceptions. Based on the data obtained, we draw conclusions about approaches to education promoting effective knowledge application and about training problem assessment criteria.
The paper revolves around the results of a research on school principal decision-making styles conducted in eight regions of the Russian Federation (one per federal district) in 2014, using the methodological approach by Alan J.Rowe. The study aimed to assess the reformist potential of Russian school principals. We believe that this potential is determined in the present context by the leadership style which suggests cooperation with teachers in decision-making processes and delegating them responsibilities under conditions of uncertainty and high cognitively complex tasks. Using the two-factor leadership model proposed by Bernard M. Bass, we suggest that either transformational or transactional leadership style may be efficient depending on school situation. Consequently, two types of leaders may be the most efficient in terms of school reformation: (1) principals with the conceptual decision-making style as dominant and the analytical one as backup— they are ready to make changes and are likely already implementing them; (2) principals with the analytical leadership style as dominant and the conceptual one as backup—they are potentially prepared to adapt under changing conditions or if required to change by external influences. Assessment of the reformist potential among the existing school principal staff in Russia shows only 12% of school principals in eight regions apply the conceptual decision-making style having a backup analytical style— it’s them who can be classified as transformational leaders. Only 11% will implement changes efficiently under a specific context—those are transactional leaders who are likely to change their leadership style for transformational one.
Parental choice of primary school is analyzed using the example of local education systems in two districts of Saint Petersburg. The empirical basis of the research is provided by the results of a survey of parents conducted in 34 schools (1,055 respondents). The following data is described and compared successively: whether parents make educational choices at all, whether they consider alternative options, what school characteristics they believe to be important, what sources of information they use, and what actions they take. The study explores how characteristics of choice are related to parental education and socioeconomic status as well as to the fact of selecting a school of a specific status. Insight is provided not only into how the desire of parents to analyze all possible school options and sources of information correlates with their educational and socioeconomic backgrounds in general but also how parental choice is affected by neighborhood structural characteristics (school diversity, proportion of higher-status schools). Districts with broader structural opportunities and a larger middle class demographic feature a variety of choice strategies, which is not observed in districts with limited structural opportunities even if they are socioeconomically heterogeneous.
On the basis of interviews with home-based kindergartens owners and employees the author comes to a conclusion that this type of services is currently carried out within the frame of a civil initiative, and not that of social entrepreneurship. Among problems that retard development of the market of such services the following ones are listed: absence of legal provisions and support from municipal authorities, lack of public trust to this kind of organizations, a short life cycle of each individual enterprise.
A questionnaire survey (N = 6,648) and semi-structured interviews with parents of school students in a Russian megalopolis were carried out to analyze how families perceive the functions of extracurricular activities (ECAs), what choice strategies they follow, and what outcomes they expect. The study is premised on the assumption that ECAs for school students are not homogeneous in terms of their mission and expected outcomes. Empirical data is used to examine the compensatory and enriching functions of ECAs. The compensatory function is about closing gaps in school education through providing subject-specific classes. Enriching ECAs engage students beyond the school curriculum, contributing to diversity of the learning environment. Interview analysis allows identifying two major strategies followed by families when choosing enriching ECAs, depending on which type of skills they seek to cultivate in their children, soft (meta-subject competencies) or hard (specific knowledge shaped institutionally).
The article presents the latest changes and modern mechanisms in providing accessibility of pre-school education that relate to the tasks in the formation of norms and values of early childhood development. It explores the issues related to developing private entrepreneurship in the field of child care and education, and the regulation of legislative changes aimed at increasing competition between private and municipal kindergartens. It assesses parents’ basic demands for modern accessibility mechanisms when electronic services for admission to the pre-school institution are introduced; it analyses various aspects of increasing pre-school education accessibility with regard to the selection of a kindergarten, the regime of day-care programs, the number of children per group, and the work of the day-care assistants. Special attention is paid to comparing public (municipal) pre-school educational institutions and private kindergartens in order to evaluate the different opportunities which enable parents to have a free choice of pre-schools institutions. The article describes the vectors in the development of pre-school education accessibility, and in levelling the starting opportunities for successful educational strategies.