Polish model of system transformation and its flexible approach to privatization of state-owned enterprises appeared to be successful. While the vast majority of East European countries as well as Russia suffered a GDP contraction, Poland goes on ahead, though at a slower pace. The article analyses concepts and mechanisms of privatization in Poland, reveals its strong points and opportunities which may provide Russian decision-makers with a necessary insight to develop strategies under Russian reality.
Relations between the EU and Japan is a topic that rarely gathers much attention in Europe and Japan, as well as abroad. Such an occasion can be observed now: a case of possible conclusion of euro-japanese free trade agreement suddenly gained global significance. The main impetuses, which brought the negotiations high on the agenda for both partners, are unilateral withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, freezing of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement and the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the EU. However, despite the fact that both parties are determined to successfully finish the negotiations, the last big hurdle on their way is high import tariffs on the EU agricultural products imposed by Japan.
Over the past three decades, the political climate and economic prosperity of the European continent largely have depended on the state of interaction between Russia and the EU. The legal basis for mutual trade and economic cooperation, laid down in the Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation, was subsequently supplemented. Russia's accession to the WTO has expanded the legal basis of bilateral relations. At the same time, the economic (financial crisis of 2008–2009) and political (confrontation in Georgia, Eastern Partnership, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) between Ukraine and the EU) have created problems and effectively anuled all previous achievements and the positive effects of the original agreements, calling into question the very possibility of bringing the partnership to a new level. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key barriers to the development of cooperation at the present stage, the role of the political factor, as well as the state of trade disputes and prospects for the development of cooperation.
Despite being close allies of the US, security cooperation between Japan and the European Union is mostly developing on 'ad hoc' basis. Indeed, geographical distance, specific limitations in the mili-tary sphere and absence of systematic foreign policy consultations had created the reality, where the EU and Japan are unlikely to regard each other as security partners of the first choice. However, these countries had been cooperating in security sphere and proceeding from the similarities between the two actors, we can con-clude that in certain circumstances their cooperation could be reinforced. First, both Japan and the EU prac-tice 'civilian power' approach to military security, tend to focus on peacekeeping, post-conflict reconstruction and crisis management. Second, strong partnership with the USA and NATO brings foreign policy positions of Japan and the EU close to each other. This article focuses on the problem of actual interaction between the partners after 1991, concentrating on various aspects of security, except for non-traditional security areas such as cybersecurity, environmental and energy security etc. With this purpose in mind, the article is divided into two parts. The first part deals with concrete examples of cooperation in the course of regional conflicts and crisis development. The reasons for relatively weak security cooperation between Japan and the EU, as well as possible ways of their security dialogue strengthening, are analyzed in the second part. The main con-clusion the author comes to is as follows: the factors, which prevent EU-Japan security dialogue from rein-forcement, most probably won't stop influencing this relationship in the nearest future. However, in some spheres, such as peacekeeping, post-conflict reconstruction and crisis management, potential of EU-Japan cooperation might be fulfilled to a greater extent.