The gratitude phenomenon in the historical and social context has been investigated. Its protective functions in the people’ well-being have been shown. 280 respondents participated in the survey (75 males), Mage=22.3. The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) by Emmons and McCullough, CES-D Scale, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. The correlation and multi-regression analyses were performed. In accordance to our expectations, the significant negative connections with depression scores, and positive with self-esteem, and resilience scores have been revealed. In addition, gender differences have been found: in males, the gratitude score is lower but contributes to the well-being stronger. Both hypotheses on the resource function of the gratitude and on the gender specificity of this connection have been proved.
The analysis of existential, social and instrumental approaches to understanding of construction of trajectory of life course by adolescents is presented; their key theses are compared; possibilities and restrictions from the point of view of understanding of meaning and developmental tasks in adolescence are studied. It has been shown that different aspects of life construction are emphasized in different approaches thus enabling to concentrate on everyday, notional aspects of life (existential approach); social representations about succession of stages, image of success, system of attitudes to adolescent’s construction of life (social approach); as well as on environmental and interpersonal resources for concrete tasks’ solution and tactics of their implementation (instrumental approach). Conclusions about strong and weak aspects of the examined approaches make it possible to specify programs for psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents in planning and realization of their life choices. Recommendations have been made; prospects of studies in the given field of psychological researches have been shown.
Interdisciplinary study of subjective conception of home as an element of personal experience is described. Based on environmental approach and statements about subjective and social character of home conception, recent empirical researches of living environment, methodology of A. Maslow’s motivation theory, cognitive theory of metaphor by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, as well as on empirical data analysis, four components of home conception existing in respondents’ personal experience that actualize different categories of needs are characterized. Fundamental, core ideas of home as a place for secure living and family maintenance constitute universal image of home. Everyday image of home describes possibility for interaction with nears and dears, creation of comfortable everyday life and refl ects subjective understanding of comfort. Dynamic image of home gives possibilities for self-changing through reconstruction of home space – control of emotional state and cognitive mood, appealing to family and personal history, broadening of repertoire of habitual kinds of activity, acquiring skills and realization of possibilities. Image of imaginary home is a pragmatic conception about the most comfortable physical environment for own life style’s realization. All components have psychotherapeutic potential that can be actualized at different stages of ontogenesis and in different situations. Study of psychology of home is prospective from practical psychology, psychology of environment and psychology of personality perspectives.
The article is devoted to the study of the process of insight problem solving. The review of key theoretical- and-experimental researches in the sphere is presented. The results of two experiments conducted to reveal contradictions in the structure of insight problem (Nine-Dot Problem) representation, that is limitations that are imposed by one part (variants) of problem representation on its other part thus complicating and decelerating of correct answer finding, are described. Several variants of such contradictions were registered. The conclusion that contradiction in the structure of representation is a necessary condition for insight’s origin is drawn. The results do not agree with dominating in present psychology of problem solving theory of problem space.
New scheme for psychological component of activity description as an integral description of specifi city of world image in all and life style of professional is proposed. This scheme amplifi es the existing ones and makes it possible to fi ll the description with psychological content. There are no analogous descriptions in foreign publications.
The review of researches and theories in psychology of justice in foreign personality psychology is presented. Theories of belief in a just world and sensitivity to justice are analyzed. Methods and procedures of justice study in psychology are specifi ed. Phenomenology of belief in a just world as a world-view attitude and justice sensitivity as a personal trait – is described. Prospects for psychology of justice for different fi elds of applied psychology are outlined.
The paper discusses opportunities of a theoretical approach that considers choice as irreducible to the decision making. Psychological content and experience of choice are emphasized. We suggest to take into account in empirical research both formal and content characteristics of the choice as well as its development within the time, including a change of choice after negative feedback - both direct (the failure to achieve the main goal) and indirect (implicit failure of the other goals that are not main for the task) ones. The aim was to study choice and change of action strategy in the task (that is presented as a game) after indirect negative feedback in two different condition. In the experiment we asked 170 students of psychological majors to choose an action strategy (quantity of "energy" to invest in achieving the goal) in a game situation on the computer. In the neutral condition ("simple choice") final goal was formulated as a win for the character (young man achieving his career goals). In the motivating condition ("meaningful choice") participants were asked to play the role of a psychologist who helps the character to achieve goals that are important for him. In the motivating condition, in contrast to neutral one, the task was perceived as more difficult; respondents tended to change the chosen action strategy readily after indirect negative feedback (success against the main goal, but the implicit failure in the overall reduction of "energy"). In the neutral condition psychological factors of self-regulation (planning; reflective orientation in the planning and failure; acceptance, rumination, focusing on the problem, positive reappraisal as strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions) predicted the stability of choice. In the motivating condition focusing on the problem, positive reappraisal, and reflective orientation in failure were associated with confidence in the choice made, but not with its stability.
The connection of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas of the personal development and counseling psychology is traced. The main principles of applied personality psychology are described (system, determinism, development, and complementarity). Synergetic and compensatory interaction between the person and situation is considered. Everyday life psychology as a theoretical base of counseling is analyzed. The interrelation of counseling and natural psychotherapy is discussed. Deficient and self-actualization models of psychotherapy are identified. The empirical data about natural techniques of client’s self-help in cases of deficient and self-actualization complaints are shown. It is concluded that everyday life is a significant resource of personal development.
Yu. Kuhl’s action control conception is analyzed. In contrast to traditional notions according to which orientation to action/state in failure, planning and realization are examined in its structure, refl exive orientation associated with conscious choice of action’s delay for the purpose of analyzing what is happening and/or coping with one’s own state is considered. In two experiments (N1 = 286, N2 = 280) three factor structure of action control (orientation to action, state and refl exive orientation) in planning and failure has been confi rmed. Refl exive orientaion scale is reliable enough and correlates with existing methods of refl exivity diagnostics and is the best predictor for planning and programming under activity”s selfregulation in comparison with orientation to activity and state.