Basic problems of optimizing the structure of a country's electrical grid by incorporating storage facilities and renewable sources of energy into the grid are formulated, and the authors’ vision on how to approach some of these problems is offered. A game model for analyzing the potential of an electrical grid with storing facilities to serve its customers and for finding fair (equilibrium) electricity tariffs in it is discussed, and an elementary scheme for estimating advantages of using these fair tariffs by a customer of the grid is proposed.
The paper examines a choice problem in case of large number of alternatives characterized by a set of criteria. Very often existing choice procedures cannot be used due to their computational complexity. In contrast, the approach proposed in this paper utilizes a set of easy to use techniques having complexity less than the quadratic. We apply super-threshold procedures sequentially in order to find the best alternatives. The application to learning to rank problem is also considered. Finally, two methods of defining thresholds and order of criteria in super-threshold procedures are studied. While the first method is based on the etalon criterion, the second method uses the distribution function. Both methods developed are mainly oriented on the cho ice of search results in search engines and capable of processing large amount of data in networks, but can also be applied to any system in which the alternatives are represented by a set of criteria.
Everyone is talking about big data, and how it will transform government. However, looking past the excitement, questions abound. How to use big data to make intelligent decisions? Perhaps most importantly, what value will it really deliver to the government and the citizenry it serves to? By reviewing the literature and summarizing insights from a series of business reports and interviews of public sector and top companies Chief Information Officers (CIOs), we offer a survey for both practitioners and researchers interested in understanding big data in the public sector of Russian Federation. Remarkable changes are taking place in IT industry of Russian Federation at present: new strategies of Federal Government, sanctions and import substitution tendency. The paper makes the estimate of internal and external factors, which effect on big data development in public sector of Russian Federation and makes comparative analysis of Russian and world practices of the study area.
Due to evolutionary increase of the software complexity, graphical user interfaces have been becoming more and more complex, and often this process encounters the restricted possibilities of reflecting graphics on a display. This paper describes an original approach to designing natural language interfaces for the action-based applications as the complements and alternatives to traditional graphical interfaces. The principal peculiarity of this approach is that it is based on a formal model of natural language structured meanings. The first part of the paper outlines the main properties of the class of SK-languages (standard knowledge languages) which is used for building semantic representations of user commands. The class of SK-languages can be employed for representing the meanings of input texts from practically interesting sublanguages of Russian, English, French, German and other natural languages. The theory of K-representations (knowledge representations), introducing the class of SK-languages, was developed by V. A. Fomichov and described in his monograph published by Springer in 2010. The second part presents an application of this theory to the design of a natural language interface to an action-based software system, it is called NLC-1 (Natural Language Commander – Version 1).
Active learning and formative assessment techniques are the cutting edge of the modern education. This paper considers peer assessment automation and touches the topic of high actuality in advancing ICT for active learning. The roots of the study are obtained difficulties in adoption of the currently available peer assessment systems to engineering education introductory courses. The main goal of the paper is to collect software requirements and to build a peer assessment system, which may be easily agreed with standard educational routines (e.g. e-mailing) and which is be able to support complex artifacts interchange during a peer assessment session. The software requirements specification (SRS) for such a system has been created as a result of reviewing educational studies, technical reports and academic publications on common peer assessment processes and existing peer assessment systems. We also introduce the open source Mail-based Randomized Double-Blinded Peer-assessment System for Complex Artifacts called PASCA, which is developed according to this SRS and the results of PASCA adoption to an introductory programming course.
The problem of axiomatic and algorithmic constructions of the threshold decision making is studied in the case when individual opinions are given as m-graded strict preferences (with m ≥ 3). It is shown that the only rule satisfying the introduced axioms is the threshold rule. Two explicit algorithms are presented: the ordering algorithm, under which the vector-grades of alternatives are successively written out, and an enumerating social decision function corresponding to the natural order of the weak order equivalence classes.
In the present article we consider the examples of transformations of the radioactive nanoclusters in systems which are intended (1) to protect the radio measuring devices and (2) for the research in the area of radiation resistance of the radio-circuit with an internal source of radiation. Also considered are the options for dealing with the problems listed above (1) and (2) based on the analysis of radioactive nuclear transformations nanoclusters ACd and В in materials that protect the radio equipment and measuring systems with internal source of radiation.
Three management problems that a state (or a public administration acting on its behalf) faces in procuring goods and/or services are considered: a) choosing the type of a contract to be awarded and the type of a competitive bidding to determine the winning bid, b) setting the initial price for a contract being the subject of the bidding, and c) designing (or choosing) a set of rules for determining the winning bid by means of the chosen competitive bidding. Mathematical models and decision procedures for analyzing and solving these problems are discussed.
Nowadays hospitals face the problem of increasing quality and at the same time reducing costs of their services. Clinical pathways approach has established itself as an effective method of reorganization of medical practice in a process-oriented way. Since more than a decade, clinical pathways are being created and applied in hospitals in the USA, Australia, and European countries. Traditional text-based approach for documenting clinical pathways does not allow automatic analysis and makes the maintenance of the models inefficient. Recently, researchers started to apply generic modeling languages, such as UML activity diagrams, EPC or BPMN, as well as domain specific process modeling languages, in order to formalize the representation of clinical pathways. However, none of these languages sufficiently covers the requirements of clinical pathway models, and the choice of a suitable modeling technique remains a problem. In this paper, we propose a modeling methodology and a modeling tool for creating graphical semantically annotated models of clinical pathways. We take into account the characteristics and usage scenarios of clinical pathways and show, how the proposed approach addresses these requirements.
The high importance of a proper definition of software architecture is obvious, but this task is not easy, especially in large projects. The project scheme should be legibly structured and clearly visualized. To that aim, usually widespread UML class diagrams are used. However, this way is not flexible and clear enough at the initial state of the development, so there is a need of a more appropriate method. Semantic networks are not so commonly used to meet these demands. Nevertheless, this notation is a fairly suitable approach to building evolutionary computing system architectures. Also, this can be a good mediator for other formats. Moreover, the tools for that may become quite powerful and relevant.