The article presents a review of literature systematizing findings on the contribution of non-cognitive skills to higher education choice-making. The concept of higher education choice-making in this paper embraces the decision to embark on a college degree, the probability of successful degree completion, the choice of academic discipline, and other related aspects. A priority focus is given to publi- cations in economics since the economic approach differs a lot from approaches in other social sciences.
In addition, the article explores the methodological characteristics of non-cognitive skills research in economics. The results of literature analysis point to the relevance of non-cognitive skills in explaining individual educational choices and allow drawing some inferences for education policy.
The article presents the results from studying the engagement of Russians in supplementary professional and business education programs and investigates the influence of such engagement on small business development in the socioeconomic contexts of different regions of Russia. The study goes from comparing the number of students enrolled in supplementary professional and business education programs of various duration across regions, through analysing the correlations between the demand for specific types of programs and the development of different business subsectors under region-specific socioeconomic conditions, to analysing entrepreneurship education as a growth driver for particular types of small businesses in specific contexts.
The study tests hypotheses about the engagement of Russians in business education being contingent on the regional context and about the influence of different forms of business education on the development of various types of business undertakings. Empirical data on three types of region-specific socioeconomic contexts reveals a significant correlation between engagement in supplementary professional and business education programs and the development level of small businesses, microbusinesses, and entrepreneurship (in its routine and innovative versions). The three clusters of regional units homogeneous in their socioeconomic contexts were determined using a multidimensional typology.
The findings allow for evaluating the role of the national education system in promoting business activities among the population based on reliable and relevant statistical information consistent with the international standards as well as measuring the effectiveness of business education programs and promotion strategies in various regional contexts. The article puts forward recommendations on choosing the types of entrepreneurship education to deliver at different levels of the education system in Russia.
The phenomenon of school bullying is considered from the point of its connection with the domains of school climate. Main characteristics of school bullying are given, specifically its prevalence, age, gender and socio-economical correlates, as well as effectiveness of most common anti-bullying programmes. Social relationships, both student–teacher and peer-to-peer are discussed as a significant factor of victimisation. Particularly data on teachers’ perspectives on bullying, their main preferred strategies of coping with respective situations in classroom and characteristics of relations with students which affect the risk of victimisation of the latter are in the main focus. The paper is analytically designed and based mostly on the findings presented in the past 10 years research, both Russian and foreign.
A survey was carried out in order to analyze the relationship between the universities’ internal factors and the indicators of their education export performance. Quantitative data was collected to describe the activities of Russian universities over recent years. Regression analysis was used to identify relationship between the indicators. The sample consisted of 173 universities from different federal districts of Russia. Achievement of the research goal necessitated the construction and quantitative assessment of various regression model specifications calculated based on how variable values changed over time. Estimates confirm a positive relationship between the number of international network partnerships, the number of double degree programs, and success in education export. The degree of diversification of education programs available to international students correlates negatively with enrollment of foreign students. The cost of educational services and the level of commercialization of higher education for foreign students demonstrate a positive relationship with education export revenues but show no relationship with the number of foreign students in a university. No relationship was found between online presence of universities, implementation of transnational education programs and education export performance. The findings are used to discuss promising vectors of education export development for Russian universities.
The significance of the problem of parental involvement in children’s education has to do with the proven positive effects of parental involvement in school on children’s wellbeing. However, no universal comprehensive idea of family involvement types and strategies has been developed so far, and the jury is still out on the efficiency of various family-school interactions in use today. This study is designed to shed light on the forms of parental involvement, which may differ depending on family, student and school characteristics. The study seeks to operationalize the concept of parental involvement, describe parental involvement based on the findings of a large-scale survey, evaluate the dependence of parental involvement on family, student and school characteristics, suggest models to predict the level of parental involvement half way through elementary school, and develop recommendations for schools. Parents of 1,447 students from Krasnoyarsk and Kazan middle schools involved in the iPIPS project were surveyed twice using the same questionnaire, first as their children became first-graders and then at the beginning of the third grade. The survey contained questions on family demographic characteristics, parents’ at-home and at-school involvement, and parental satisfaction with school communication. It was established that parental perception of school communication climate is a much more important predictor of thirdgrade parent involvement in school than family sociodemographic characteristics or the level of child development assessed at baseline. On the whole, the results obtained do not confirm the benefit of using universal strategies to encourage parental involvement.
We review the most widespread theoretical models of demand for higher education. We use weekly Vedomostipublications on appointments of senior executives in Russian companies and Russian branches of foreign companies from the late 1999 to the late 2009 to analyze the education level of Russian senior executives: what first higher education they reseived and where; how and where they got their second higher education; what categories of managers are more likely to reseive a second higher education. The sample comprised 5001 appointments. We performed an econometric analysis of the factors determining demand for second higher education among senior executives. Almost all the senior executives have higher education, one third of them have two or more diplomas. Economic and business studies were found to be the most needed areas. Second higher education was more likely to be in demand by senior executives who obtained their first diploma in engineering or humanities.
Research on social network sites (SNS) is mainly focused on Facebook, the most popular SNS in the world. The Russian analogue of Facebook is the social network VK with more than 100 million active users. The potential of this site as a data source is now acknowledged in educational research but little is known about the reliability of data obtained from this social network and its sampling bias. Our article investigates the reliability of the VK data on secondary school students from a Russian school (766 students) and bachelor students from selective Russian university (15 757 students). We describe the procedure of matching VK profiles to the students. A direct comparison permitted us to identify profiles of around 18% students. A special technique developed by us increased this number up to 88% for school students and 93% for university students. We compare age, gender and GPA of identified students and students who were not on the VK. We compared the structure of social relationships, retrieved from the VK data, to the expected structure of students’ social ties. We found that the structure of ‘virtual’ social relationships reproduces both the socio-demographic division of students into classes according to their age and spatial division into different school buildings or university campuses. To our knowledge, it is the first study of this kind and scale on VK data. It makes a contribution to the understanding of reliability of the data from this SNS and its potential in educational research.
16–18-year-old students of Moscow schools and other educational institutions were surveyed to assess how the Russian school uses modern methods of e-learning, mobiles technologies and social media in the learning process. The sample covered 3,194 respondents. The study describes three waves of Russian school informatization and the challenges the system has been fac- ing over the last five years: the extensive use of mobile phones and PDAs with high-speed access to the internet by students, the active use of social me- dia services for communication, search and storage of information. The arti- cle demonstrates the obvious progress of the schooling system: present-day teachers communicate with their students by email and via social networks and occasionally give homework assignments to be done online or using internet services. Yet, school remains an extremely conservative institution. The education system is insensitive to the rapidly development of technologies, and the process of modernization is essentially inhibited by sticking to conventional teaching practices and ignoring the innovative ones.
Analyzing the knowledge appropriation concept put forward by J. P. Gee, the author draws parallels between it and activity structure studies, the play concept and self-appraisal studies pursued in the national psychology.
The article provides an overview of international studies on parental involvement in extracurricular activities, which identify the major factors affecting the choice of such activities: family finances, cultural capital, parental education and ha- bitus, local educational infrastructure, and the possibility of making informed choices. The empirical basis of the research was provided by the findings from semi-structured interviews with parents of Moscow preschool and school-aged children engaged in extracurricular activities conducted in spring 2017. The stu- dy also makes use of the quantitative data obtained by the 2017 Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations. We analyze the frequency of using par- ticular sources of information in choosing extracurricular classes, the criteria of parental choices and expectations, and the types of choice scenarios. The fin- dings call into doubt the feasibility and potential benefits of a number of extra- curricular activity initiatives envisaged by the national policy.
Student withdrawal (attrition) is becoming an actual phenomenon due to demographic changes, modernization of the economy and education, especially for universities located in economically depressed areas. The tradition of research on student withdrawal is still being formed in Russia, so it is important to clarify the main terminology used for the analysis of withdrawal, to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account the specifics of Russian universities, and to specify the prospects for the elaboration of research. A review of the terminology used in international studies to study the withdrawal as well as the history of studying this phenomenon in the USA is presented. The basic concepts of withdrawal, developed in sociology, psychology, organization theory and economics, are considered. They indicate the effectiveness of accounting for a wide range of factors of differing natures in the study of withdrawal: the processes of social and academic integration, the psychological characteristics of students, the organizational characteristics of the university and educational programs. When adapting existing models to Russian higher education, it is important to take into account that compulsory withdrawal caused by academic failure of students predominates in Russian universities, while international models were created to describe voluntary withdrawal from higher education institutions. National research which can serve as the basis for the development of a model of student withdrawal from Russian universities is analyzed.
This article overviews studies exploring the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on education systems and their responses to lockdown restrictions, comparing available findings with international statistics based on continuous education system monitoring. Global organizations acknowledge disruption of traditional educational processes and emergency transition to distance learning during the pandemic. Scientific literature examines accessibility of online education, alternative forms of distance learning, and the pandemic-induced financial constraints on universities inhibiting new construction, social support for students, scholarship application, professional development of faculty members, and research growth. The pandemic illuminated the issue of inequality in education, which worsened as a result of emergency transition to online studies. In particular, researchers focus on the most vulnerable groups of students, such as children from low-income families, children from migrant backgrounds, and students with disabilities.
Projects aimed at studying the digitalization of education account for the biggest chunk of research inspired by the new pandemic reality. A number of studies discuss not just formal transition to distance education but a major technology shift that allows using the unique opportunities provided by digital technologies, which is especially important when teaching to medical students.
Theoretical inquiry is a distinctive feature of scientific discourse, as compared to the discourse of international expert and analytical reports on the problems of education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on changes to the learning process makes it possible to reconstruct the direct and indirect, as well as latent, threats of the pandemic.