Entitativity is a key construct for understanding group perception. But the problem of understanding this construct is troublesome. There are three theoretical approaches and at least two different empirical strategy of measuring the entitativity. In the Study 1 entitativity is described as three related components: “essence” (group members' similarity), “agency” (goals and group members' interaction) and “unity” (cohesion of the group and the degree of group importance). A series of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-component model of entitativity fitted the data well for different groups (ingroup, outgroup, intimacy groups and social categories) and demonstrated a better fit, compared to the alternative model. The results of study suggest that components of entitativity are interrelated, but not identical to each other. Study 2 demonstrated that using of different ways of understanding entitativity (as “essence”, “agency”, “unity” component or common entitativity scale) doesn’t lead to differences in relationship with blatant prejudice, subtle prejudice, and identification. The implications of the obtained results for future research are discussed.
Attitudes towards immigrants remain a relevant psychological outcome as they are related to prejudice, discrimination, and adaptation of migrants. Recent studies showed that basic human values could be used to explain considerable proportion of variance in attitudes towards immigrants and immigration. These studies reported that across cultural contexts the value dimension of self-transcendence is positively related to attitudes to migrants, and the value dimension of conservation is related negatively. In this paper I attempt to address some theoretical problems with universalistic interpretations of value-behavior relationships and propose a new method to identify culturally specific patterns of value-attitude relationships. Data from 25 countries collected in waves 5 and 6 of the European Social Survey (ESS) was used to assess feasibility of the proposed method. Accounting for cross-country variation significantly improved predictions of attitudes towards immigrants from individual values. Moreover, the proposed measure moderated the relationship between individual values and attitudes towards immigrants when tested against an independent data set. In line with past studies, the results indicate that overall, universalism (a self-transcendent value) is the most positive predictor of attitudes towards immigrants, and security (a conservation value) is the most negative. Unlike previous studies, there is no support for universality of the pattern. A theoretical explanation for cultural variation is offered.
The article presents the main milestones of the life and work of a prominent American psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970).
In the article the results of the validation of a novel method for assessment of an emotional state called core affect - 12-Point Affect Circumplex Scales, Adjective Format, developed by M. Yik, J.A. Russell and J.H. Steiger, is introduced. This methodology allows to assess core affect – elementary emotion state which lies in the core of every emotion and represents an integral unit consisting of two factors which every person feels permanently – valence (pleasure-displeasure) and arousal (activation-deactivation). The adaptation of the test was conducted on the sample of 200 random individuals. In order to evaluate the construct validity, correlation analysis with the results of three other tests was performed: C. Izard's Differential Emotion Scale, Self-assessment of the Emotional State by A. Wessman and D. Ricks method and the method for Evaluation of psychological activation, interest, emotional tone, tension and comfort by L.A. Kurgansky and T.A. Nemchin. Cronbach's alpha for each scale was estimated. The results of the psychometric check of the instrument allow to infer high levels of reliability and construct validity. Practical importance of the instrument consists in it's applicability for the assessment of human's emotional state even when the object of the feeling is not obvious.
The author discusses the work of the Russian psychologists, V.N. Druzhinin, who has recently passed away. He argues that Druzhinin's principal research topics were the actualisation and development of personal abilities - both constructive and destructive - together with the factors influencing the human potential. With this in view, the author considers Druzhinin's approach to psychodiagnostics as well as his original version of existential psychology that integrated the cognitive and the moral dimensions.
The article aims to test the psychometric properties of The Selves Questionnaire on Russian sample. The development of a new technique is associated with the study of personality’s representations in analyzing the self. The questionnaire enables to assess the discrepancies between different aspects of self-concept, especially, between actual self and/or ideal self or ought self. The assessment is doing from two standpoints: own and significant other. The results of test-retest procedure that have evidenced the satisfactory psychometric characteristics of the technique are discussed. Some issues are indicated for further adaptation and validation of tested technique.
The article presents the results of the validation of the Circumplex of personality metatraits questionnaire on the Russian sample (Strus, Cieciuch, & Rowiński, 2014; Strus & Cieciuch, 2017). The new concept of the personality metatraits, which is the development of Big Five, is briefly described in the article. According to the model, metatraits can be described within a circumplex that is organized by 2 orthogonal dimensions: Alpha and Beta. Also, the authors of this model, introduced to the model 2 other metatraits: Gamma and Delta. The main advantage of the CPM model is that it provides foundations for wide-ranging theoretical and methodological integration. The description of the validated questionnaire, the sample on which the validation was conducted and other techniques that were additionally used to assess the empirical validity of the questionnaire is provided. During the validation of the questionnaire, direct and reverse translations of the questionnaire items were made, cognitive interviews were conducted, and, in order to approbate, 1191 respondents were interviewed. When processing the data obtained in this sample, the reliability-consistency of the eight scales of the questionnaire was evaluated, multidimensional scaling was performed to confirm the circumplex structure and the order of the mutual arrangement of the personality metatraits. To assess empirical validity, additional techniques were used that allow us to evaluate a number of other psychological constructs that can be hypothetically related to certain personality metatraits. As a result, we managed to get a questionnaire that meets the necessary requirements for validity and reliability. The questionnaire and the keys to it are attached to this article.
Study of refleсtion is one of the innovative directions of modern psychology. The logic of the development and stages of refleсtion research in European philosophical and psychological thought from antiquity to the present are analyzed in the article. The main scientific schools and directions of Russian psychology of refleсtion are being differentiated and characterized. The links between philosophical and psychological interpretations of refleсtion in the Russian psychology and the development of the literary and artistic critique in the 19th century are traced as well as the interaction of the modern psychology of refleсtion with adjoining humanities.
This paper describes the current state of the problem of time perspectives and the phenomenon
of procrastination in professional activities. The paper is primarily focused on special aspects of
time perspectives and procrastination of employees with different job titles. The paper contains
an empirical study of the interrelation of time perspective and procrastination of employees with
different job titles. The results show that top managers usually focus highly on future time
perspectives (59.03) and the positive past (36.06). Their level of procrastination is lower (53.45).
Groups of middle managers show high procrastination (57.2); they focus on hedonist present
(24.6) and the negative past (31.26). The article proves a statistically significant level of
distinctions of procrastination expressiveness on the entire sample (1211 a t p < .01). A connection
between life-purpose orientation and time representation was established: the most effective lifepurpose
orientations for top management were 'life goals' (35.28), 'locus control — life' (32.7)
and 'sense of purpose of life' (155.25); in the middle management group these facts are faintly
expressed. Correlation analysis using the Spearman's Rho allowed us to highlight a high level of
procrastination in the middle management group determined by their orientation on time
perspective of negative past against low focus on the future that complicates the success of
professional activities. The regression analysis revealed the main predictors of procrastination in
the groups of top managers (aims in life, process of life and locus control-ego) and middle
managers (Fatalistic present and future). It may be assumed that personal time perspective and
its time orientation are interconnected with procrastination processes and can be considered
both negative and positive consequences that aligns with the results of the latest research
examining procrastination in professional activities.
The article reviews the results of the study on the interaction of values and socio-economic views of Korean and Russian students. The theoretical basis for the research is the works by Russian and foreign authors in social, economic and cross-cultural psychology, as well as in institutional and behavioral economy. The theory of individual values by S. Schwartz was used for the study on values (Schwartz et al., 2012), as well as some works on interaction of culture and economy (Weber, 1978; Hofstede, 1980; Furham, 1984; Inglehart, 1997; Zhuravlev, Kupreychenko, 2007; Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2011). The objective of the research was the detection of universal and culture-specific correlations between individual values and socio-economic views of Russian and Korean students. The subjects were students of 14 to 30 years of age (157 Koreans and 211 Russians), living in Seoul (Republic of Korea) and Moscow (Russia) correspondingly. Socio-psychological survey was administered with the method of “snowball”, the content of the questionnaires in two languages was identical. The Korean version of the questionnaire was translated and adapted in accordance with the requirements of cross-cultural psychology – Think-aloud (Ericsson & Simon, 1980; Someren, Barnard, Sandberg, 1994). The results of the survey were calculated with SPSS and AMOS (exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling). The research showed that there are universal correlations of values Openness to Change with Positive attitude toward competition and between Self-transcendence and Satisfaction with material status and Importance of money. Also cultural-specific correlation was found between the block of values Openness to Change and Positive attitude toward competition in Russians and Koreans – which was positive and negative correspondingly. The acquired results and findings of the research can be used in drafting of recommendations in the sphere of crosscultural business-consulting.
What is the relationship between the vocabulary of a person and the process of cognition? A lot of studies show that the nameability of labeling objects accelerates the category learning. We hypothesized that the presence of labels of the object’s features locations also helps learning new category rules. In the experiment the subjects learned to distinguish two fictitious illnesses with the images of symptoms, located in various places. We varied the location of the symptoms on a silhouette of a foot. In the condition of a high nameability of a location, the images of symptoms were located on those parts of foot, for which common labels exist (for example, a heel or a sole). In the condition of a low nameability, the images of symptoms were located on those parts of foot, for which the labels are rarely used (Achilles or an arch). The formation of the rule demanded finding a link between the location of the symptom and its image. According to the hypothesis, the location of category features in places, which have more convenient labels, will improve the success of learning the category rule, as opposed to location of the same features in places that do not have convenient labels. As a result, we’ve found that this hypothesis was confirmed: the subjects formed a rule in the condition of high nameability more successfully, than in the condition of low nameability. We explain this result with the following: the presence of convenient labels allows testing hypotheses while learning new categories more easily – matching the features with the feedback while determining the category rules. The results are discussed in the context of development in ontogenesis the ability to form categories.
Our experimental study looked into the way existing knowledge influences the way subjects con- struct the rules of categorization and modify them as they are applied. We modified the experiment of E. Wisniewski and D. Medina (1994) by asking the respondents not only to create a categorization rule, but also to use it to categorize new images, and we looked at the frequency and type of subsequent rule modification. The respondents, 114 university students, were given a set of images drawn by children and asked to identify their common features under one of the four conditions: relevant prior knowledge (participants were told that the drawings had been made by children with high and low creativity), stan- dard condition (participants were told the drawings had been made by children from groups A and B), standard condition with examples (one sample of drawings from each group was shown), and irrelevant knowledge. We found that under the relevant prior knowledge condition, compared to the other three conditions, the respondents tended to construct more complex and abstract rules and to change them more frequently when they categorized new objects. We also found that rule modifications during usage led to more complex and abstract rules under all four conditions. We interpret the findings as evidence for two stages of categorization, the first stage involving search for existing generalizations in semantic memory, and the second stage involving adaptation of prior knowledge to current conditions.