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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 208
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Article
Zobnina M. R., Коротков А. В., Rozhkov A. Foresight and STI Governance. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 4. P. 69-81.

 

This paper explores creation and development of the role of entrepreneurial education tracks in the formation of a university entrepreneurial ecosystem (UEE) in some Russian universities promoting new venture launch, technology commercialization and entrepreneurial mindset and skill set development.

Based on the сo-operative inquiry method with representatives of 21 Russian Universities the integrated UEE model reflecting experiences of UEE on different development stages was built. The role of entrepreneurial courses in UEE is shown on 4 cases of Russian universities.

 

This paper explores creation and development of the role of entrepreneurial education tracks in the formation of a university entrepreneurial ecosystem (UEE) in some Russian universities promoting new venture launch, technology commercialization and entrepreneurial mindset and skill set development.

Based on the сo-operative inquiry method with representatives of 21 Russian Universities the integrated UEE model reflecting experiences of UEE on different development stages was built. The role of entrepreneurial courses in UEE is shown on 4 cases of Russian universities.

Added: Oct 31, 2019
Article
Golikova V., Kuznetsov B. Foresight and STI Governance. 2017. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 83-93.
Added: Oct 10, 2017
Article
Kuznetsov B., Golikova V. Foresight and STI Governance. 2017. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 83-93.

he Russian manufacturing sector has an underdeveloped SME sector both in terms of employment and contributions to GDP in comparison with other economies, with evident signs of stagnation over the past few decades. However, little is known about the capacity of SME sector, i.e., the opportunities to grow and thus exploit the benefits from economies of scale. The paper attempts to estimate the impact of internal and external factors on a firm’s competitiveness in the context of optimal enterprise size.

The main conclusion is that that the satisfaction of Russian SME managers has been increasing due to factors such as the sufficient supply of qualified personnel, modern infrastructure, developed partnerships, the expansion of the geographical scope of available markets and favorable institutional conditions for entrepreneurship. In contrast, serious constraints to SME growth in Russia discourage entrepreneurs and lead to poor decisions by managers such as exploiting shadow schemes, leaving the market or growth in the form of nominally independent firms under the informal “umbrella” of one owner. Formidable bureaucratic barriers and significant transactional costs increase the vulnerability of small businesses to administrative pressure. In order to survive and remain on the market, Russian companies have to adapt to the existing institutional environment, and must be larger compared to their counterparts in developed economies.

Added: Jul 2, 2018
Article
Knyazeva H. Foresight and STI Governance. 2020. Vol. 14. No. 4. P. 6-8.

The introductory article to the special issue “The Strategic Management in the Context of Dynamic Complexity” substantiates that models and representations of the theory of complex systems are becoming the most relevant science-based background, which allows us to respond to the challenges of our time. The increasing complexity of social and economic development processes, accompanied by uncertainties, instabilities, unexpected turns, digitalisation in the economy and the birth of Industry 4.0, the growing importance of network structures in business activity, new environmental standards associated with the need to switch to circular processes in the economy - all this requires changes in the management strategies of firms and corporations. Unconditional advantages are received by those firms that embed the principles of systemic, holistic, and non-linear thinking in their business philosophy.

Added: Dec 25, 2020
Article
Gokhberg L., Kitova G. A., Roud V. Foresight and STI Governance. 2014. Vol. 8. No. 3. P. 18-41.

Tax incentives have proven to be an efficient tool of state support for science, technology and innovation, and are used by many countries on their way towards sustainable development and enhancing global competitiveness. Fiscal stimuli are increasingly combined in a more flexible manner, thus contributing to attaining wider spectrum of objectives; means of international comparison and evaluating impact of these tools are actively evolving. However, despite the fact that for many countries the tax incentives are demandable and work effectively, Russia's situation is different. Based on the results of a specialized survey, the paper estimates the demand for R&D tax breaks from Russian manufacturing enterprises, research organizations and universities performing R&D. The study demonstrated that such a demand is generally low for all types of surveyed organizations, probably due to both the imperfection of the Russian tax legislation, which makes the considered tool inefficient, and low share of the organizations engaged in R&D and innovation. Among the most frequently noted demotivating factors were mismatch of organization’s activity to the terms of using a specific tax break, as well as unwarranted costs associated with the need to prove the right to use these breaks. When using a specific tax incentive, the research institutions typically seek exemption from VAT for R&D activities and patent licensing operations, as well as benefit to mainstream targeted grants. Universities engaged in R&D are more likely to turn to the benefits for grants and accelerated depreciation of fixed assets used for scientific and technological activities. The analysis showed that in Russia the public sector dominates among all categories of recipients of tax incentives for research and innovation. This situation is contrary to best practices and global trends in supporting research activities, which involve betting on strong national players (including startups and SMEs). It hardly allows STI tax incentives to be an efficient mean and provides a basis for the revision and optimization of these tools. This paper indicates possible further directions in the studying tax incentives, their classification, performance assessment and optimization to meet best practices, global trends, and the forefront of research in this area.

Added: Oct 9, 2014
Article
Dezhina I., Nafikova T., Gareev T. et al. Foresight and STI Governance. 2020. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 51-62.

The article is dedicated to the analysis of cost factors, primarily tax burden, that can explain the observable price difference on Russian market between domestic telecommunication equipment and imports from China and USA. The relevance of the research is justified by critical significance of this market for economic, information and technological security of Russian Federation in a changed geopolitical environment. The present methods of tax burden calculation analyzed in the article reveal the subindustry level measurement to be the least studied. Based on data on 42 companies for 2015-2017, the cost structure of telecommunication equipment manufacturing industry is studied, a model for computing the tax burden rate on domestic enterprises using imported components is built. The model is adjusted for cross-country comparison to reflect the specifics of countries’ tax systems. The calculations are based on the assumption of equal production costs in the three countries under examination.A comparative analysis has shown that the tax burden in Russia is on average higher than in USA (almost 3 percentage points) and in China for enterprises operating in preferential economic zones (about 2 percentage points). However, this difference in tax burden rate does not explain the observed price discrepancy on the domestic market (up to 21 percent). Cost of components and cost of debt are additionally examined as the factors elucidating divergence of economic conditions. An approximate assessment of their influence has shown that the effect of reducing average costs with an increase in output of components, which is especially characteristic of China, has the largest impact. For American importers the tax burden level and high-end offer are the main competitive advantages. A number of tariff regulation measures allowing to compensate for the price discrepancy on the domestic market are proposed for innovation policy to stimulate the technological development of national producers.

Added: Apr 15, 2021
Article
Gibson E., Daim T., Garces E. et al. Foresight and STI Governance. 2018. Vol. 12. No. 1. P. 6-24.

Foresight studies provide essential information used by the government, industry and academia for technology planning and knowledge expansion. They are complicated, resource-intensive, and quite expensive. The approach, methods, and techniques must be carefully identified and selected. Despite the global importance of foresight activities, there are no frameworks to help one develop and plan a proper foresight study. This paper begins to close this gap by analyzing and comparing different schools of thought and updating the literature with the most current tools and methods. Data mining techniques are used to identify articles through an extensive literature review. Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques are used to identify and analyze leading journals, articles, and researchers. A framework is developed here to provide a guide to help in the selection of methods and tools for different approaches.

Added: Oct 30, 2018
Article
Kühn M., Viviers W., Sewdass N. et al. Foresight and STI Governance. 2020. Vol. 14. No. 3. P. 72-87.

The purpose of this article is to extend the Competitive Intelligence (CI) business ecosystem concept and measurements, as developed by our previous work, to South Africa. The article is based on a pioneer study on the CI business ecosystem conducted outside North America and demonstrates how the concept and measurements are applicable in other countries.The business ecosystem view considers the state of CI both in terms of intelligence practice (by firms) and the support system that enables firm practice. For this study, measures from past studies and additional revised measures were used to examine firms’ CI practice as well as CI supporting systems within government, academia, and professional associations. Through multiple lines of research, the study noted that CI remains a practiced discipline in South Africa with evidence of the field having evolved within the country. While CI practices have grown in terms of some elements (for example, academic contribution), activities in other aspects of the ecosystem have declined such as association involvement, conferences, workshops, and training. Future research should be conducted to better understand the changes in these elements and their impact upon CI practice.

Added: Oct 1, 2020
Article
Miles I. D., Belousova V., Chichkanov N. et al. Foresight and STI Governance. 2021. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 6-18.

Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are problem-solvers for other organizations. The coronacrisis affects KIBS directly, but also means that their clients are confronting new problems. How are KIBS addressing these two sets of challenges? This paper draws on material available in the trade and industry press, on official reports and statistics, and the early academic studies addressing these themes. We find that KIBS have been active (alongside other organizations) in providing a substantial range of services aimed at helping their clients (and others) deal with various contingencies thrown up by the crisis. Not least among these is the need to conform to shifting regulatory frameworks, and requirements for longer-term resilience. KIBS themselves have had to adapt their working practices considerably, to reduce face-to-face interaction with clients and within teams collaborating on projects. Adaptation is easier for those whose tasks that are relatively standardized and codified, and it remains to be seen how far a shift to such activities - and away from the traditional office-based venues of activity - is retained as firms recover from the crisis. KIBS are liable to play an important role in this recovery from the crisis, and policymakers can mobilize their services. Some KIBS are liable to be critical for rendering economies more resilient in the face of future pandemics and we argue that these firms are also important for confronting the mounting climate crisis.

Added: Apr 1, 2021
Article
Sabirova D., Belousova V., Krayushkina Z. et al. Foresight and STI Governance. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 2. P. 107-119.

As a result of the transformation of the labor market, the constant development of human capital has become crucial. This paper considers the role of human capital in professional development through the prism of 16 semi-structured interviews with both Russian and foreign graduates of a master’s program focused on training experts in the field of science, technology, and innovation. Most of the graduates of the program found jobs in the corporate sector and at research centers, but among the interviewees, there were also representatives who chose self-employment or public service. The contribution of undergraduate and master’s degrees to the professional development of these interviewees was assessed and they noted that if studying at the undergraduate level contributed primarily to obtaining subject knowledge, then studying at the master’s level contributed to the development of missing competencies and the opening of new professional opportunities. Interviewees identified emotional and social intelligence as key skills in their professional development and noted the critical importance of digital skills and subject knowledge. In turn, the most popular way of training, in the opinion of respondents, is online education.

Added: Jun 25, 2019
Article
Vonortas N. Foresight and STI Governance. 2017. Vol. 11. No. 2. P. 6-8.

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Added: Oct 30, 2018
Article
Boykova M. V., Ilina I. N., Salazkin M. Foresight and STI Governance. 2016. Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 65-75.

In light of the increasingly complex socio-economic processes and changes, today’s cities as complex systems will not be able to respond to numerous challenges unless they possess a governance model that can flexibly adjust to shifting external conditions. In this regard, there is growing demand for innovative management tools combining solutions from different fields. The ‘smart city’ concept is one of the most sought after. This article analyses the advantages of this concept, the conditions needed, as well as the obstacles for implementing it. We consider the challenges related to becoming a ‘smart city’, the different ways a smart city comes into being, evaluate the future for smart city solutions, as well as assess the current willingness of administrations of Russian cities to adopt this model.From our analysis, we conclude that ‘smart city’ strategies continue in many cases to rely on a narrow, ‘technological’ approach. Such an approach presupposes that the availability alone of smart infrastructure can solve many urban problems and improve the quality of urban life. However, in contrast to the extended, comprehensive approach, it does not address many socio-economic factors and the real needs of the population. Consequently, certain targets remain largely unfulfilled. The implementation of an integrated approach implies a number of conditions, such as the ability to integrate management decisions taken at various levels and predict how changes in one system affect other systems; a focus on interdisciplinary collaboration; and an ability to deal with resistance to changes.A survey conducted by the HSE’s Research Institute for Regional and Urban Planning in 2015 aimed to evaluate the future prospects for establishing the concept of ‘smart city’ in Russian cities. The survey results show that city managers in Russia in general positively perceive the ‘smart city’ approach as a basis for urban development strategies. Yet, the possibilities for implementing it are mostly seen as medium or long-term options.

Added: Sep 26, 2016
Article
Ivanova I., Strand Ø., Leydesdorff L. Foresight and STI Governance. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 1. P. 48-61.

The innovation capacity of a system can be measured as the synergy in interactions among its parts. Synergy can be considered as a consequence of negative entropies among three parts of the system. We analyze the development of synergy value in the Norwegian innovation system in terms of mutual information among geographical, sectorial, and size distributions of firms. We use three different techniques for the evaluation of the evolution of synergy over time: rescaled range analysis, DFT, and geographical synergy decomposition. The data was provided by Statistics Norway for all Norwegian firms registered in the database between 2002 and 2014. The results suggest that the synergy at the level of both the country and its seven regions show non-chaotic oscillatory behavior which resonates in a set of natural frequencies. The finding of a set of frequencies implies a complex Triple-Helix structure, composed of many elementary triple helices, which can be theorized in terms of a fractal TH manifold.

Added: Mar 4, 2019
Article
Shmatko N. A., Lavrynenko A. S. Foresight and STI Governance. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 2. P. 42-51.

This paper analyzes the impact of breakthrough technological areas, such as artificial intelligence (AI), big data, the internet of things, and blockchain upon on conventional banking professions and skill sets. Our conclusions are based upon a large array of data collected over the course of a survey of top personnel conducted in 2017-2018 using text mining, case studies, and expert interviews. The changing requirements for workers and their competences were assessed taking into account the level of technological development (including use of relevant products and services by Russian and international companies) as well as the probability of certain professional skills being substituted by automated solutions in the medium term. The results indicate that technologies’ impact upon various functional segments of banks’ operations is varied. While most of the analyzed professions are evolving towards broader functionality, others are sliding into the “obsolete” group. In the next few years, automated systems will take full responsibility for data collection and its initial analysis, though they will not replace bank personnel fully given that they simply remain tools that help boost workers’ productivity and efficiency, extend the information base, accelerate decision-making, cut costs, and reduce risks.

Added: Nov 12, 2019
Article
Prause G., Thurner T. Foresight and STI Governance. 2014. Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 24-32.

This paper discusses the importance of innovation communities for contemporary innovation management. Based on a detailed literature review and corresponding industry examples, this paper suggests that userdriven innovation through tools like virtual communities, communities of practitioners and living labs will be of increased importance for future innovation processes. Of particular importance for integrating dispersed knowledge, such tools also provide very valuable information sources for strategic planning approaches like foresight.

Added: Jan 27, 2015
Article
Kutsenko E., Eferin Y. Foresight and STI Governance. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 24-40.

This article analyzes sectors of specialization and sectoral dynamics in the regions of the Russian Federation from 2005 to 2015. The study is based on the methodology of the European Cluster Observatory in the 2016 edition as revised by the authors. It proposes a typology of regions depending on the number of specialization industries and the depth of sectoral development: agglomeration, diversification, specialization, and differentiation. Four types of specializations are identified based on the depth of their development and distribution among Russian regions: national leadership, distribution, concentration, and niche development. The authors implemented an approach to study regions through alternative scenarios of sectoral development over a ten-year period: occurrence, strengthening, extinction, and disappearance. The study identifies various structural models that combine the implementation of the described scenarios in relation to various specializations within a particular region. It is shown that the scale and intensity of structural changes largely depends on the region’s proximity to millionaire cities but does not always directly affect economic growth rates. The authors introduce the concepts of “sinkholes”, “streams”, and “safe harbors”, which describe the types of regions with a different type of structural changes that occur depending on the presence or proximity of the millionaire city.

Added: Oct 4, 2019
Article
Bredikhin S. V., Linton J., Matoszko T. Foresight and STI Governance. 2017. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 24-30.

How and why the positive net effect of science related activities substantially increases the value that would be anticipated by the financial theory that seems to work so well for other fields is considered here. A qualitative analysis of 25 small listed biotechnology R&D firms illustrates that these firms do not follow the neo-classical expectation of Gaussian returns. To better understand this deviation from the expected Gaussian returns the firms are compared to S&P 100 and Thomson Reuters Global Innovator List. It is found that while these large firms have a higher than expected frequency of non-Gaussian events, the causes appear to be dominated by macro-economic or industrial events that impact large numbers of firms. With the small R&D intensive biotechnology firms, it is possible to identify specific events that appear to trigger the sudden increase or decrease in value. A better understanding of the nature and magnitude of these events allows for policy makers, investors and managers to better comprehend the unusually large risks and new opportunities associated with biotechnology R&D. From this, a greater insight is afforded into the dynamic value of R&D in general.

Added: Mar 24, 2017
Article
Бойкова М. В., Гаврилов С. Д., Гавриличева Н. А. Форсайт. 2009. Т. 10. № 1. С. 4-15.
Added: Feb 10, 2013
Article
Мешкова Т. А., Моисеичев Е. Я. Форсайт. 2016. Т. 10. № 1. С. 69-82.

The objective of this paper is to analyse the scope for improving empirical and methodological foundation of global value chains (GVCs) research and for making relevant political decisions, primarily through application of foresight methodology. The authors review major trends of global value chains’ development, specific features of Russia’s participation in them, and the necessary steps to increase the quality and efficiency of this participation, in particular in the changing geopolitical context. Special attention was paid to theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of GVC research which are far from being adequate (primarily we mean international databases such as TiVA and WIOD developed with participation of the OECD and the WTO): they need to be supplemented with advanced tools to improve their forecasting potential, and practical and strategic orientation. To this end, approaches which would make it possible to research interconnection between global processes and trends with regional and national innovation-based development tendencies become of crucial importance. Application of foresight methodology may significantly contribute to researching the GVC phenomenon, being a major logical step towards creating advanced research and policy tools to mobilise available resources and coordinate stakeholders’ actions to increase global competitiveness. The paper presents a number of case studies which describe practical application of foresight methodology to analyse Russian participation in various GVCs, by the examples of specific product and service group. The authors conclude that both full-scale foresight studies and specific components thereof could be applied for the purposes of GVC analysis, strategic planning and making political decisions.

Added: Mar 31, 2016