The author of the article: - highlights the main aspects of struggle against drugs; - gives the general characteristics of drug abuse treatment of the population of the regions of the Russian Federation; - describes the system of the indicators of development of the service of drug abuse help; - disclosures methodological approach to the synthesis of integral indicators of the drug abuse treatment network in the regions of the Russian Federation.
In a method for synthesizing control of a nonlinear object with a quadratic quality functional is considered, based on the acceptance of the "extended linearization" of the initial mathematical model of the object. In this case, the parameters of the nonlinear regulator are determined by solutions of a matrix equation of Riccati type with parameters that depend on the state of the object. It is noted that the main problem of implementing such a regulator is the complexity of finding the solution of this equation at the pace of the object's operation. To solve it, a method based on the search for regulator parameters for each time interval of the control interval is proposed. The developed method of synthesis and implementation of control of a nonlinear object is suggested to be checked by constructing a strategy for the introduction of drugs in the treatment of cancer using a mathematical model of the dynamics of the growth of cancer tissue and its interaction with normal and immune cells. The results of mathematical modeling performed to check the effectiveness of the solutions obtained are presented.
Road traffic injuries and their consequences are increasing global problem. In 2014, Russia ranked first in the number of deaths from traffic accidents per 1 million population among the countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Objective: to identify the age and sex characteristics and dynamics of the burden of road traffic deaths in Russia. Methods: Non-clinical observational study, the object of which is the years of life lost due to premature mortality due to road accidents in Russia, calculated as the product of the numbers of deaths from road accidents, based on impersonal Rosstat data, and standard life expectancy (LE) on the annual age group for men and women between 2000 and 2012. Results: For men aged 20-34 years accounted for 50% of the total number of years of life lost due to a traffic accident in 2012; for women aged 20-34 - 37%.Reducing the number of years of life lost per 1000 men / women occurred in all age groups over the period. The sharp decline in the rate of increase in losses between 2007 and 2009 ended in 2010. The pace of growth of losses began to increase in almost all age groups after 2010. The pace of growth of losses for men aged 15-19 was so significant that the number of years of life lost per 1000 males in 2012 (29.8 per 1,000 men), almost back to the level of 2000 (30.8 per 1,000 men).
In Russia road-traffic accidents are one of the main causes of injury of the population. In 2016 more than 220,000 people were injured in road accidents, whereas 20,000 people died. Published review of injury epidemiology in the UK and Europe found that many studies relied solely on mortality rates from injury to describe epidemiology while deaths comprise only the top of the injury pyramid. It could lead to erroneous estimates of the total burden of injury.
This study is designed to assess both the years of life lost due to premature mortality and disability caused by road traffic fatal and non-fatal injuries, using integrated indicators of the population health. We use methodology of disability-adjusted life years (DALY), as well as an empirical database of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate, medical statistics (№ 57) and statistics on deaths from vital registration system.
In the most Russian papers the years of life lost due to premature mortality were estimated, whereas in this study we estimated the whole burden of road-traffic accidents caused by fatal and non-fatal injuries in Russia in 2012. Our estimates of DALY due to road-traffic accidents in Russia in 2012 are close to WHO’s estimates, exceeding them by 4.5%. It indicates the ability of using Russian medical statistics to assess DALY without using different international models.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
According to a systematic review of published data in both the national and international scientific indexing systems, including the results of our own researches, there have been selected evidence-based criteria and internal genotype-phenotype risk determinants for assessing the individual susceptibility to the acute cold exposure. In accordance with these criteria, the list of cold-related health conditions was defined. This list includes 33 classes and groups of diseases and conditions by ICD-10 codes, arising from or tightly associated with the cold exposure. According to the comorbidity principles, the novel quantitative predictive model for assessing the individual susceptibility to the acute cold exposure was developed and validated. This assessment takes into account, in addition to the meteorological risk factors, also internal risk determinants, including physical status, behavioral, pathogenic and functional disorders, as well as receiving thermoregulation-altering pharmaceuticals prescribed by recommended therapeutic doses. The algorithm for calculating the individual health risk and recommended time limits based on the use of suggested comorbidity index for the acute exposure to cold in an open area or in unheated premises without special active thermal protection is described.
The paper represents an application of agent based approach for simulation modeling as the new way to create epidemic models. It is much differed from common disease spreading simulation technique, which uses differential equations. The AnyLogic 6 agent based computer simulation model of the influenza spreading was created. The model allows making a short-range sickness rate forecast based on current morbidity statistics.
Evidence based medicine (EBM) is a bridge between the science and the medical practice. Today there is a range of terms in use, and there is a discussion on their application. IN this text authors discuss the essense of the EBM, specifically - the process of proving the statement.