Principal possibilities of creation of industrial systems with high degree of an effective use of raw material and the power resources providing reception of qualitative products with the minimum cost price and with almost total absence of emissions of ecologically dangerous components in atmosphere and hydrosphere are considered.
In the article results of K.Rogers psychotherapeutic speech intent-analysis realized by authors purposely to describe general psychological foundations of speech psychotherapeutic activity, studying it's intentional plan, revealing of therapist speech intentional specificity are presented. Existing views on intentionality concept are shown, intention bases of psychotherapeutic discourse which according to authors are determined by base aims of concrete therapeutic method are analyzed. Methods and stages of research are described. As an object of research С.Rogers therapeutic cases illustrating his professional work during different periods of his life are selected. Psychotherapist speech intensions dictionary made during research process and also their classification are resulted. The result of the research is comparative analysis of intentional characteristics of Rogers speech.
Brain-computer interfaces find application in a number of different areas and have the potential to be used for research as well as for practical purposes. The clinical use of BCI includes current studies on neurorehabilitation ([Frolov et al., 2013; Ang et al., 2010]), and there is the prospect of using BCI to restore movement and communication capabilities, providing alternative effective pathways to those that may be lost due to injury or illness. The processing of electrophysiological data requires analysis of high-dimensional, nonstationary, noisy signals reflecting complex underlying processes and structures. We have shown that for non-invasive neuroimaging methods such as EEG the potential improvement lies in the field of machine learning and involves designing data analysis algorithms that can model physiological and psychoemotional variability of the user. The development of such algorithms can be conducted in different ways, including the classical Bayesian paradigm as well as modern deep learning architectures. The interpretation of nonlinear decision rules implemented by multilayer structures would enable automatic and objective knowledge extraction from the neurocognitive experiments data. Despite the advantages of non-invasive neuroimaging methods, a radical increase in the bandwidth of the BCI communication channel and the use of this technology for the prosthesis control is possible only through invasive technologies. Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is the least invasive of such technologies, and in the final part of this work we demonstrate the possibility of using ECoG to decode the kinematic characteristics of the finger movement.
The article considers the possibility of peat field fire prediction using the open sources of remotesensing data. Spatial and temporal distribution of peat field fires was analyzed for the European part ofRussia which is the most vulnerable area of the country in terms of peat-fire risks. The brightness temperatureand the NDWI moisture index were identified as the most characteristic parameters. They are sensitive tochanging flammability of peateries and could be calculated using Aqua/Terra, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data.The threshold values of these parameters were determined by surveying the fields burned during 2013-2017, thus providing for the interpretation of potential peat field fires. Correlation analysis of thresholdvalues with the surface temperature made it possible to extend the established values to other unsearchedpeateries of the European Russia. Following the results of the study, recommendations to forecast peatfield fires by remote sensing data were given
It is offered a new environmentally friendly technology of use of wastes from the enterprises of chemical and metallurgical industries for synthesis of multipurpose non-toxic amino complex compounds (ACC), and also a new technology of melioration of high moisture clay soil by adding of ACC.
The study of the indices of developmental homeostasis in natural populations leads to the definition of the fundamentals of population developmental biology, which is associated with the assessment of the nature of phenotypic diversity and the mechanisms of population dynamics and microevolutionary changes. Characterization of environmental quality based on the assessment of population status by developmental homeostasis determines the fundamentals of the health of environment concept. The use of the ideas of developmental homeostasis and the health of environment in the studies of homeostatic mechanisms of biological systems of different levels (from the organism and population to the community and ecosystem) is promising. This gives new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms that provide sustainability and their ratio at different levels as well as for the characterization of ontogenetic stability significance. The notion of developmental homeostasis, or homeorhesis, is promising for the elaboration of the ecological and biological basics of sustainable development.
On the basis of dendrochronological, lichenometric and historical data with the use of Earth remote sensing materials, the evolution of the Donguz-Orun Glacier has been reconstructed over the past centuries. In this work we used aerial photographs of 1957, 1965, 1981, 1987, satellite image of 2009, as well as descriptions, photographs, maps and plans of the glacier of the 19th and 20th centuries, data of instrumental measurements of the glacier end position in the second half of the 20th – early 21st centuries, dendrochronological dating of pine on the front part of the valley, and juniper to date coastal moraines, and the results of lichenometry studies. It has been established that the Donguz-Orun Glacier in the past had several clearly marked advances about 100, 200 and more than 350 years ago, which are expressed in relief in the form of uneven-aged coastal moraines. Despite the fact that the Donguz-Orun Glacier differs from many mountain-valley glaciers of the Caucasus primarily by its predominantly avalanche feeding and a moraine cover, almost entirely covering its surface, the main periods of its advances are consistent with the known large fluctuations of mountain glaciers during the Little Ice Age in the early 20th, early 19th, and, probably, in the middle of the 17th century. However, unlike most other Caucasian glaciers, the Donguz-Orun Glacier advanced in the 1970s–2000s. The scale of its degradation from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st century is also uncharacteristic for the Caucasus: the reduction in the length for longer than a century period is only about 100 m.
This study aims to evaluate features of the formation and sources of the basin component of the sediment yield during flash floods. Measuring campaigns were conducted in the weakly disturbed section of the Tsanyk River basin, located in the Greater Sochi area in the foothill-lowland zone of the Caucasus Black Sea coast. We used a set of field and calculation methods, including sediment dating with application of 137Cs, pin method, Yang's method, erosion modeling and others techniques for determining the rate of denudation and deposition processes. We investigated the processes of local and long-distance sediment movement. It was established that the rate of creep is 2-2.2 cm/year, the intensity of scree processes varies depending on the rock types in the range 1-3.5 cm/year. The processes of sheet erosion and linear erosion contribute to the movement of part of the eroded material from the catchment area to the river channel. Four types of slopes and slope catchments are distinguished according to the features of a sediment delivery from the catchment area to the river channel. The average annual sedimentation rate in the gully fan is amounted to 2.3 cm/year since 1986. At the same time, on the basis of studying the accumulative deposits of the gully fan, including the content of the 137Cs isotope in the different layers, it was established that the main sources of sediments are material produced by gully erosion, scree processes and slopes settling. 5-6 episodes of catastrophic sediment removal occurred in this particular slope catchment for 30-year period. The ratio between a sediment removal from the slope catchments to the river channel and the measured sediment yield in the Tsanyk River during the rain floods of low repeatability makes it possible to state that the basin component of sediment yield is at least 75% of the total. Information about the ratio of slopes and slope catchments of various types within the small river basins of the subtropical belt of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus should be taken into account when calculating engineering structures for protecting infrastructure facilities from the impact of flash floods or mudflows.
The article is devoted to the study of international research experience of migration, especially internal migration. The total number of countries studies the migration of population by censuses using the question of the place of birth. Thus, in 2005 censuses rounds from 141 countries, conducted a census at that time, 115 of which asked this question. Using the criterion of lifetime migration allows evaluating the internal migration. In the absence of other data sources, the application of this criterion can be used for international comparisons of internal migration. In many countries there are features of the usage of this criterion, which express as either a fractional difference in administrative-territorial division, or in combination with other methods of research. Besides asking about the place of birth it is also asked about the previous place of residence and place of residence at some point in the past. Censuses are supplemented by special surveys, such as American Community Survey in the United States and the National Sample Survey in India. By the case of India, Venezuela and the United States the author identified the distinctive features of internal migration in individual countries from different parts of the world and with different levels of socio-economic development. In India the question about the previous place of residence has the same popularity, apart from the question of the place of birth. Both criteria give a similar pattern of migration, despite the differences in the definition of migration. Until now, the most large-scale migrations are displacement of rural population. In Venezuela, as in many other Latin American countries, there is a lack of demographic statistics. Under these conditions, the census is the most important source of information about the inter-regional migration. A special government program was approved in this country to overcome the imbalance of territorial redistribution of the population in the 1960s. In the U.S., the population of which is known for its mobility, there is a strong differentiation among the states in migration activity.
A self-consistent model of the formation and evolution of dusty plasma structures in the ionospheres of the Earth and Mars is presented. The model allows describing the formation of a stratified dust structure as a result of dust cloud evolution in the Earth's ionosphere. The structure forms due to the splitting of the primary cloud and is characterized by the presence of a cluster of dust grains at altitudes corresponding to noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes. The characteristic formation time of polar mesospheric clouds in the Earth’s ionosphere obtained within this model agrees with observational data. The possibility of the formation of oversaturated carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian ionosphere, similar to noctilucent clouds in the Earth's ionosphere, is shown. It is demonstrated that phenomena similar to polar mesosphere summer echoes on the Earth can also take place in the Martian ionosphere. The theoretically estimated dimensions and charges of dust grains in the Martian ionosphere agree with observational data.
Nowdays every serious attempt to justify scientific realism is obliged to somehow manage van Fraassen’s employment of evolutionary epistemology against the important realistic «no-miracles argument». Thus a systematic translation of arguments pro et contra sufficiency of natural selection for evolutionary progress into epistemological language is needed. The main thesis of this paper is that it is difficult and maybe even impossible to reconcile scientific realism with classic evolutionary epistemology based on selectionist models.
Basing on the information about the structure of the solution and asymptotic estimates in the problem of steady flow across the root, a system of algebraic relations similar to the commonly used compartment models is obtained. As compared with these, the method proposed has an important advantage making it possible to take into account the characteristic features of the anatomical structure of the root and the non-uniformity of the parameter distribution over its cross-section. This enables us to formulate simple finite relationships fitting with sufficient accuracy with the numerical solution obtained within the framework of the continuum model. The application of the approach proposed to solving specific problems is simpler than both the numerical solution based on the continuum model and the solution obtained by asymptotic methods.
This paper describes an approach to supply chain network optimization for a petrochemical enterprise. The state-task network is used for supply chain representation. A framework for comprehensive economic and environmental assessment based on life cycle assessment is proposed. The software implementation of proposed methodology is described.