Recent advances in neuroscience gave rise to new fascinating ideas and issues in social sciences. However, neuronal processes are still perceived as irrelevant for a typical sociological research. This is partially the sequence of a limited explanatory power of social neuroscience rooted in the mind-body problem. But sociological research ignoring brain processes is equally weak. We consider key features and problems both of neurophysiologic and sociological explanations, taking maternal behavior as an example. We then attempt to formulate conditions of integrative neurosociological explanation, and propose a three-factor model of maternal behavior.
Basic components of the cognitive activity distortion peculiarities among young men and women with schizophrenic spectrum disorders research results are analyzed in the article. Pattern, specific to the persons with schizophrenic spectrum disorders is descript in the article: they have formation and interdependence of the cognitive activity’s basic components specific.
Objective. To identify the most frequently occurring symptoms resulting from the affection of internal and external skull base in patients with benign tumors of the anterior and middle cranial base. Material and methods. The authors analyzed a complex of history, clinical, and instrumental data as well as results of combined treatment of 642 patients with benign tumors of the anterior and middle cranial base operated Medical Research between 2007 and 2011. Results. Neurological signs and symptoms in patients with benign tumors of the anterior cranial base, parasellar region, and middle cranial fossa were studied. In the majority of cases, the tumor extended extracranially. The most common groups of symptoms were identified and described, the most important groups are presented in the diagrams. The proposed scheme is applicable also for malignant tumors or other mass lesions of the same localization. Conclusion. Effective treatment and selection of the best management of a patient depends on modern medical approaches and techniques including neuroimaging. Careful assessment of symptoms is crucial in detection of tumors in the early stage. Dynamic monitoring of the patient using the proposed scheme will contribute to early detection of tumor recurrence or progression.
Goal. To develop a system for differential diagnosis of rhinitis allergic and infectious etiologies. Materials and methods. Data 217 pediatric patients with infectious and allergic rhinitis were used to construct a diagnostic system based on neural network technology. Results. Created the system of the differential diagnosis, allowing using a minimal number of input parameters with high precision to make the diagnosis "infectious rhinitis and allergic rhinitis". The virtual computer experiments to assess the role of passive Smoking on the prognosis of these diseases have shown conflicting results, requiring further investigation. Conclusions. The developed diagnostic system can be used on the principle of "pre-diagnosis of allergic rhinitis without the allergist", work pediatricians, internists, General practitioners, and also for screening diagnosis in terms of "health centres".
The article analyzes the changes in the Russian Federation's state policy in the field of birth control in the post-Soviet period and their impact on the access to abortion and its incidence in the country.
Because of the strategy of early diagnosis of arterial hypertension (AH) the majority of patients with prescription of the antihypertensive therapy (AHT) have grade 1 hypertension (AH1). Accumulated scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of AHT for AH1 is insufficient for introduction of the active therapy, and the balance of harms and benefits is not clear in relation to AHT for AH1. The development of the next generation Russian guidelines for AH management in application to AH1 should take into account the totality of the scientific evidence as well as the perspective of the introduction of the national drug provision scheme. The best way to do it is to introduce more accurate diagnostic criteria for AH1 and the recommendation not to initiate the drug AHT for AH1 in cases of low cardiovascular risk.
Informing about safety along with the creation of safe living and movement conditions is an important task for preserving the independence of the elderly. The article describes the experience of the UK in limiting risk factors that can lead to various injuries of older people and even their death. The success and effectiveness of measures, which ensure safe living of elderly people, can be assessed through such indicators as age-standardized mortality rate from external causes and life expectancy at age 65. According to these indicators Russia significantly behind the UK, and given the global trend of an ageing population, we should use the experience of UK in our country.
In this article the author is analyzing demographic indices (fertility, life interval, death-rate, migration) of the Kyrgyz Republic. Also probable trends of population change up to 2025, risks and losses associated with life time shortening, lack of social infrastructure, labour resources and etc were presented.