Because of the strategy of early diagnosis of arterial hypertension (AH) the majority of patients with prescription of the antihypertensive therapy (AHT) have grade 1 hypertension (AH1). Accumulated scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of AHT for AH1 is insufficient for introduction of the active therapy, and the balance of harms and benefits is not clear in relation to AHT for AH1. The development of the next generation Russian guidelines for AH management in application to AH1 should take into account the totality of the scientific evidence as well as the perspective of the introduction of the national drug provision scheme. The best way to do it is to introduce more accurate diagnostic criteria for AH1 and the recommendation not to initiate the drug AHT for AH1 in cases of low cardiovascular risk.
Informing about safety along with the creation of safe living and movement conditions is an important task for preserving the independence of the elderly. The article describes the experience of the UK in limiting risk factors that can lead to various injuries of older people and even their death. The success and effectiveness of measures, which ensure safe living of elderly people, can be assessed through such indicators as age-standardized mortality rate from external causes and life expectancy at age 65. According to these indicators Russia significantly behind the UK, and given the global trend of an ageing population, we should use the experience of UK in our country.
In this article the author is analyzing demographic indices (fertility, life interval, death-rate, migration) of the Kyrgyz Republic. Also probable trends of population change up to 2025, risks and losses associated with life time shortening, lack of social infrastructure, labour resources and etc were presented.
The topic of demography in recent years excites a lot of discussion among politicians, economists and sociologists. These discussions are reflected in the media including on the Internet: the articles addresses issues of fertility and maternity capital, mortality and health, migration and the labor market. However in these articles it is possible to detect certain errors and inaccuracies which are associated with the use of demographic indicators and their interpretation. This article conducted a content analysis of the Russian Internet editions (mass media), contains the basic errors in these publications in terms of major demographic processes and categories, and the classification of those errors. We have found five types of errors and inaccuracies: the discrepancy of reality, stylistic inaccuracies, inaccuracies in the wording, errors and inaccuracies of interpretation of demographic processes, inaccuracies of use of indicators and terms. Although crude rates are mostly used in the media due to their plainness, for comparison between regions and for a time it is essential to use special demographic indicators such as age-standardized mortality rate, life expectancy, total fertility rate and other. The article would be useful not only to journalists and to the main newsmakers in the person of officials, but also to students who write essays and abstracts on the subject of demography, and to all of them who feel a lack of demographic knowledge.
Goal of study: to carry out an analysis of drinking water viral contamination dynamics in the Arkhangelsk region for development of proposals improving water supply of the population. In order to reveal markers of viral contamination in water, there have been carried out examinations of water samples by a laboratory in the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Arkhangelsk Region from 2006 to 2014 with use of different methods. With use of the virological method and the method of enzyme immunoassay (EIA), there were examined 934 drinking water samples from the public drinking water supply system, and with use of the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - 617 water samples. Presence of enteroviruses and their genetic material in drinking water samples was confirmed in the laboratory in 2008, 2010 and 2014. In what connection, the proportion of samples with positive research results for enteroviruses with use of the PCR method was in 2008 - 4.5 %, in 2010 - 7.4 %, in 2014 - 1.6 %. In the analysis with use of the virological method, a positive result was received in 2010 - there were isolated 3 strains of Coxsackie enteroviruses В5 (2.4 %) and in 2014 - there was isolated 1 strain of Coxsackie enteroviruses В3 (0.5 %). The results of the analysis of water samples carried out with use of the EIA method with the goal to reveal hepatitis А virus and rotaviruses antigens have shown annually registered facts of presence of markers of these causative agents in piped water. Thus in the mentioned years, the proportion of samples containing group-specific antigens of rotaviruses was 1.3 %, hepatitis A virus antigen - 0.5 %. Annually in water samples, there are detected DNA/RNA of the following microorganisms: Salmonella spp., rotaviruses of A group, Noroviruses of 2 genotype, astroviruses, adenoviruses of F group. In the structure of the detected DNA/RNA of the causative agents, there prevail rotaviruses of A group (57.4 %) and adenoviruses of F group (24.1 %). There have been proposed recommendations for solution of problems of water situation improvement for supply of good drinking water to the Arkhangelsk region population.