The article is devoted to the study of international research experience of migration, especially internal migration. The total number of countries studies the migration of population by censuses using the question of the place of birth. Thus, in 2005 censuses rounds from 141 countries, conducted a census at that time, 115 of which asked this question. Using the criterion of lifetime migration allows evaluating the internal migration. In the absence of other data sources, the application of this criterion can be used for international comparisons of internal migration. In many countries there are features of the usage of this criterion, which express as either a fractional difference in administrative-territorial division, or in combination with other methods of research. Besides asking about the place of birth it is also asked about the previous place of residence and place of residence at some point in the past. Censuses are supplemented by special surveys, such as American Community Survey in the United States and the National Sample Survey in India. By the case of India, Venezuela and the United States the author identified the distinctive features of internal migration in individual countries from different parts of the world and with different levels of socio-economic development. In India the question about the previous place of residence has the same popularity, apart from the question of the place of birth. Both criteria give a similar pattern of migration, despite the differences in the definition of migration. Until now, the most large-scale migrations are displacement of rural population. In Venezuela, as in many other Latin American countries, there is a lack of demographic statistics. Under these conditions, the census is the most important source of information about the inter-regional migration. A special government program was approved in this country to overcome the imbalance of territorial redistribution of the population in the 1960s. In the U.S., the population of which is known for its mobility, there is a strong differentiation among the states in migration activity.
A self-consistent model of the formation and evolution of dusty plasma structures in the ionospheres of the Earth and Mars is presented. The model allows describing the formation of a stratified dust structure as a result of dust cloud evolution in the Earth's ionosphere. The structure forms due to the splitting of the primary cloud and is characterized by the presence of a cluster of dust grains at altitudes corresponding to noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes. The characteristic formation time of polar mesospheric clouds in the Earth’s ionosphere obtained within this model agrees with observational data. The possibility of the formation of oversaturated carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian ionosphere, similar to noctilucent clouds in the Earth's ionosphere, is shown. It is demonstrated that phenomena similar to polar mesosphere summer echoes on the Earth can also take place in the Martian ionosphere. The theoretically estimated dimensions and charges of dust grains in the Martian ionosphere agree with observational data.
Nowdays every serious attempt to justify scientific realism is obliged to somehow manage van Fraassen’s employment of evolutionary epistemology against the important realistic «no-miracles argument». Thus a systematic translation of arguments pro et contra sufficiency of natural selection for evolutionary progress into epistemological language is needed. The main thesis of this paper is that it is difficult and maybe even impossible to reconcile scientific realism with classic evolutionary epistemology based on selectionist models.
Basing on the information about the structure of the solution and asymptotic estimates in the problem of steady flow across the root, a system of algebraic relations similar to the commonly used compartment models is obtained. As compared with these, the method proposed has an important advantage making it possible to take into account the characteristic features of the anatomical structure of the root and the non-uniformity of the parameter distribution over its cross-section. This enables us to formulate simple finite relationships fitting with sufficient accuracy with the numerical solution obtained within the framework of the continuum model. The application of the approach proposed to solving specific problems is simpler than both the numerical solution based on the continuum model and the solution obtained by asymptotic methods.
This paper describes an approach to supply chain network optimization for a petrochemical enterprise. The state-task network is used for supply chain representation. A framework for comprehensive economic and environmental assessment based on life cycle assessment is proposed. The software implementation of proposed methodology is described.
The article reviews factors and key trends of the population and economic development concentration in the capitals of 11 ex-Soviet states. Contradictory trends of the population concentration during the crisis period of 1990-th and since 2000-th are shown. The levels of economic concentration in the capitals as well as industrial output and investment concentration are extremely different and supplemented by the diversity of trends due to the infl of many factors. The higher level of housing construction and retail concentration is revealed for almost all capitals. Population money incomes inequality between the capitals and the whole country differs essentially and seems to be a signifi factor of labor migration to the capital or abroad.
This paper describes a space experiment that is planned to be performed within the framework of the Russian project of the microsatellite CHIBIS AI to meaure ionospheric signal delays to determine the electron density and spatial fluctuations of the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma. The measurements will be conducted by the phase interferometer method at two levels using signals from the onboard in-phase transmitters and GPS/GLONASS signals. The location of the radiation sources at two levels will make it possible to separate plasma variations in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere-plasmasphere. The experimental results are of interest both for solving fundamental problems of near-Earth plasma physics and applied problems to improve positioning accuracy using global navigation systems.
Integration of Crimea and Sevastopol into Russian political space is analyzed, including changes in institutions and the managerial system, personnel replacements and new practices adoption.
The review presents a new trend in cognitive studies of the last decade – «cultural neuroscience», a research area developing at the interface of experimental psychology, neuroscience, cultural anthropology and genetics. Theoretical approaches and empirical data obtained within two lines of research are discussed: on the one hand, the study of structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in the course of mastering various cultural practices (literacy, professional skills, etc.), and on the other – investigations into the neural and genetic correlates of analytic vs. holistic styles of perception, attention, memory and categorization in so-called «individualistic» (Western) and «collectivist» (Eastern) cultures. Methodological problems arising from this research are outlined. The research and conclusions accumulated by cultural neuroscientists are compared with the basic assumptions of L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology.