The 19th century saw an explosive growth of the gap between the “First” and the “Third” World as regards per capita incomes and levels of life that has become to be known as the “Great Divergence”. In the 20th century the Great Divergence continued up to the early 1970s, and then – in the late of the 1980s one could observe the beginning of the Great Divergence when the growth rates of the majority of the Third World countries started to exceed systematically the growth rates in the majority of the countries of the First World. We demonstrate that the dynamics of the gap between the First and Third World correlate in an unusually tight way with the dynamics of the world population growth. We also demonstrate that this correlation is not coincidental but reflects a very tight correlation between the phases of the global demographic transition and the phases of the Great Divergence / Great Convergence. The process of the Great Divergence that transforms rather smoothly into the process of the Great Convergence and the global demographic transition (that is the process of global modernization) can be regarded as different sides of a single process – a phase transition in the World System development – the global modernization process.
A series of dates of unfolding of the first leaves and duration of the season of vegetation in the silverbirch (Betula pendula Roth. (B. verrucosa Ehrh.)), as well as the duration of flowering of the bird cherry (PaFdus avium), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), andsmall-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) for the period1970–2010 in the central part of European Russia were studied in order to assess the trends. Differences in phenological responses to homogeneous climate changes in the trees of the same species from the northernand southern parts of the range were revealed. If spring events occur 3–7 days earlierin the northern part, nosuch effect is observed in the south. This fact can be interpreted as a manifestation of the different mechanisms of homeostasis in different populations determined by their biological characteristics (in particular, by the need to pass successfully the periods of organic rest and vegetation).
In this paper, we study the important problem of the registration of the sea waves with the help of pressure recorders installed on the bottom. Dissenting attention is paid to the possibility of using low dispersion highly nonlinear models for the calculation of a bottom pressure through fl uctuations in sea surface, caused by the passage of a solitary wave. In the framework of weakly-dispersive fully-nonlinear theory of long waves (so-called system- Zheleznyak–Pelinovsky) obtained a simplifi ed formula for the variations of pressure at any depth, associated with the passage of progressive waves on the surface. Analyzed the properties of solitary waves and performed their comparison with the known approaches Korteweg-de Vries equation, which is valid for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive waves. Details are researched bottom pressure fl uctuations caused by the soliton is small and moderate amplitude. It is shown that, starting from the heights of the soliton, roughly equal to half the depth of the basin, the spatial distribution of the pressure becomes two-humped, and the pressure at the center of the wave decreases as compared to the hydrostatic. The motion of a small-amplitude solitary wave (soliton) caused a pressure, the shape of which repeat the shape of the soliton.
Global trends of decarbonization of world economy and features of transition of the countries with high economic potential to low-carbon development are analyzed in this article on the basis of a research of the international reports of International Energy Agency (IEA), Institute of sustainable development and researches of France (IDDRI), national reports of UN FCCC. The authors research in detail on the modern directions of implementation of decarbonization of separate sectors of national economy (industry, transport, construction, etc.) of such countries as the USA, the European Union, China, South Korea and Great Britain, identify concrete measures for its implementation, including sectoral measures and mechanisms for improving energy efficiency, support for the development of renewable energy sources and prospects for the development of national systems of trade in emissions. The authors note that the analysis of global trends in the transition to low-carbon development and the development of decarbonization strategies, which presented in the article, has the special importance for the entry of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the club of developed countries.
This article presents the results of analysis of mortality dynamics among population of 9 territories of Arctic and Subarctic regions, using linear regression technique. Allcause mortality reduction was significantly greater in the 4 territories of the country. These 4 regions were: Murmansk region and Komi Republic (for females), Archangelsk region (for both sexes) and Republic Sakha (Yakutia) (for males). The following regions displayed mortality reduction which was close to national averages or less: YaNAO, KhMAO and Magadan region. Mortality rates among males declined faster than that among females. Relatively lower mortality indicators in the territories of YaNAO and KhMAO could likely be attributed to migration of the population to midlatitude regions with accumulated burden of northern pathology. Mortality reduction tendencies from the leading death causes (diseases of circulatory system, respiratory diseases, external causes) in the region are close to national averages. The most strongly mortality reduced from brain strokes, myocardial infarction and external causes of death. The mortality rates and the mortality dynamics can be described as relatively positive in the region on the whole, except for “other diseases of circulatory system” category, where mortality rates exceeded national average twice in particular years. Life expectancy in the Arctic region is close to that in Russia, except two autonomous regions KhantyMansiisky and YamaloNenetsky, where life expectancy was higher than national average by 1.7 and 2.6 years among males and by 0.4 and 0.7 years among females, respectively. The situation in Nenetsky and Chukotsky Autonomous Regions and in Magadan region remains unclear because of possible inaccuracy of primary data.
A letter dated May 22, 1921 (London) by Boris Uvarov (1889–1870), a Russian-born entomologist and author of the phase theory (which provided the rational foundation for the control of locusts), to his colleague and teacher, zoogeographer and taxonomist, Andrey Semenoff Tian-Shanski (1866–1942) is published for the first time. The letter is remarkable in three respects. First, it provides an account of Uvarov’s encounter with local British collection practices and documents a partly successful attempt at introducing a practice of collecting insects using cotton layers, which had proven unpopular in Britain. Secondly, it offers a glimpse into the ways in which professional entomologists of the period rationalised and structured their accounts of their everyday activities. And, thirdly it documents contemporary attitudes to the instability in Russia during the years following the Revolutions of 1917 and the Civil War. The letter is provided with biographical and bibliographical commentaries of the persons and publications mentioned.
The article discusses the logic of constructing a problem-situational case-study aimed at the formation of ideas on modeling of developing living systems as a method of scientific knowledge among students of humanitarian faculties. Questions and tasks for the task are selected in such a way for studying natural science material, such components of critical thinking develop as creative, rational, logical, reflective and metacognitive thinking.
In conditions of intense spatial transformation of Moscow agglomeration (MA), driven by housing construction and migration from Russian regions to MA, urgent task is to build a integrated model of key economic and spatial drivers and outcomes of the transformation. In the article a new model of spatial equilibrium in MA is developed. The model includes three modules: 1) spatial equilibrium model for labour and housing markets in MA; 2) model of dynamic equilibrium between migration and housing construction in MA; 3) model of distribution of housing construction by zones of MA. In the first module equilibrium values of the population, employment and wages are predicted for concentric zones of MA (central business district – CBD, urban zone and zone of new construction). In the second module the equilibrium between migration from Russian regions to MA and new housing construction is shown. The deviation from equilibrium leads to an adjustment of incentives for migration, change of migration flows and finally rebalancing of equilibrium and reproducing of real income gap between MA and other Russian regions. The module 3 describes distribution of housing construction by concentric zones of MA, providing equal profitability of development projects due to adjustment of land prices. Despite the rather generic nature of the model, it is already able to reproduce several trends in spatial evolution of the MA in recent decades, especially the transition from extensive development phase with the spread of urban area in the Moscow suburbs in oil spot fashion and hyper-dense development of CBD, to intensive phase with in-depth development of the main “body” of the city. The model stresses how closely are integrated processes in the largest agglomeration (of Russia and in the national settlement system. The model shows how the political and economic processes through changes in rents and agglomeration effect change incentives for work, life and construction in different areas of MA and form the fate of different urban territories. The model describes the reverse side of the coin, how interregional migration is affected by the internal structure of the Moscow agglomeration. When making decision on the promotion of housing construction, especially largescale economy-class greenfield projects of on the periphery of agglomeration, the city implicitly accepts the decision to increase migration from Russian regions, affecting the national system of settlement in Russia.
Should manager consider time value of money within modern models of inventory management? Which will be the right decision from all accessible possibilities? The article provides the idea, that aspects and attributes of such choice can be correlated with efficiency indicators of mentioned systmes and will be dependend on goals of optimization. Provided pictures have to exclude finally all possible doubts in format of consideration of money flows in real supply chains within inventory management.
The analyses is concerned with the population changes in Central Russia according to the last two population census data.
In various comparisons between Individual Psychology and Humanistic Psychology similarities in the concept of man are seen. Furthermore the connections in the life history between Adler, the founder of Individual Psychology, and Maslow and Rogers, the two most important persons in Humanistic Psychology are shown here; Adler even was their teacher in New York in a certain extent. Theoretical convergences and divergences between the both edifices of ideas are reviewed and on the basis of concrete statements Adler's role as a guiding intellectual force of the movement of Humanistic Psychology and Person-centered Approach is pointed out. Finally the growing discussion about efforts for integration between the different therapeutic approaches will be examined.
The problems of Climate Change and phenology are discussed
This article describes the substance of forms, tools and principals of functioning of the technical-and-economic audit. It's innovation theoretical and practical activity for modern global economics. There are peculiarities and examples of organization of the internal audit for mining industry for the previous stage of this system establishment in Russia. Fundamental tendencies of the improvement and development for this system are proposed.