The paper analyzes the tendency to use the so-called precedent names in combination with the noun moment to conceptualize events in contemporary English. Relying on the Corpus of Contemporary American English, the author reveals the main types of precedent names used in this function. The paper looks into the semantics of collocations, reveals the circumstances of their coinage and defines the degree of their conventionalization in speech practice. The author goes on to describe an experiment conducted on SurveyMonkey, whose aim was to reveal the mechanisms of metaphorization of precedent names, on the one hand, and to diagnose the spread of this type of collocation in real speech practice, on the other hand. The author reveals factors that contribute to the correct metaphorical interpretation of the collocations, analyzes the possibility of alternative metaphorical readings on the basis of subjective associations, as well as the possibility of using other interpretational models (mainly metonymy and literal interpretations), and assesses the degree of awareness in building metaphorical mappings. The paper comes up with the conclusion that the lexico-syntactic model under study possesses considerable productivity and has good prospects for further development in the English language.
The article analyses birthday greetings in the social net «Facebook» from ecological language perspective with the focus on the nature and function of language as a means of living system (society) organization and its role in the development of thinking, psyche, and consciousness. According to this approach language is a result-oriented action within the framework «organism – environment». The analysis of greetings highlights the specific features of e-discourse niche. The author singles out different psycholinguistic and cultural aspects of verbal greetings in the timeline by Russian, English, German, French users of the social net in terms of holistic and analytical types of critical thinking.
The article presents the results of the research aimed at revealing verbal variables that dementalise the content of the communicant’s psyche. The authors take particular interest in speech tolerance and proneness to conflicts as personality features. The files of the users of the Internet-forum “Club Quadra” (http://socioforum.su/) have been analysed in order to observe the correlation between the psychological (the extent of tolerance and proneness to conflict) and linguistic individual characteristics and reveal specific linguistic markers of each psychological type. The analysis was performed with the use of K. Yung’s classification that identifies four basic functions of the human psyche: logic vs ethics and intuition vs sensory capabilities. The major results of the research are the language classificators of psychological types and specific speech characteristics revealed by the authors: dynamics and language creativity for the intuitive type; subjectivity and lack of order for the ethic type; objectivity and consistency for the logical type; categoricalness and statics for the sensory type. The article concludes that the ethical-sensory and logical-sensory types can be considered quite aggressive and intolerant because of being strongly convicted in their point of view and trying to impose it on others. Both intuitive types prove to be less categorical due to realizing the subjectivity of their opinion, that is to say, their speech behavior may be regarded as tolerant towards a different opinion. Basing on the list of parameters for assessing psychological types, an attempt has been made to write a computer programme-classificator that could identify the psychological type of a testee on the basis of their speech. The key method employed in the study has been the frequency analysis aimed at revealing the proportional frequency of each language classificator in each text.
The article discusses the role of visual and verbal codes in the perception of a multimedia text. Empirical research material are the personal pages of organization employees (university), the method is a subjective scaling. The sample is 70 people. According to the results of empirical research, the perception of the text creolized visual code plays a leading role, if destroying the normative idea of the visual image. If the creolized text includes typical visual image, the visual code is used as clarifying and detailing the information obtained by means of the verbal code.
This article represents an attempt to analyze the somatism (nomination of the bodypart) “hands” from the psycholinguistic point of view. It aims to reveal the mental images Russian and English speakers associate with the word “hands”. For this purpose, a wide range of linguistic sources such as language corpora and the results of an associative experiment have been studied and compared. The methods of the analysis are described, its qualitative and quantitive results are presented.
The paper considers the use of ironic simile in S. King’s prose. Ironic simile is defined as a type of simile, which formally states a similarity between two objects and semantically subverts it. The topicality of the research is accounted for by the need to study ironic simile as a phenomenon and by the increasing scholarly interest in individual uses of cognitive and language resources. The research was conducted on the basis of 13 novels and one novelette written by S. King, with the total volume amounting to 8867 pages. The corpus of examples was collected manually and includes 20 units, each of them unique in the sense that it belongs exclusively to S. King and occurs in his texts only once. The paper describes two models on which King’s ironic similes are based: as + adjective + as + a noun и (to have) the noun1 of a noun2. Both models are seen as modified forms of the scalar and approximating simile respectively. The paper describes mechanisms of this modification and conditions which are necessary for it, and considers the use of formal irony markers (about and all). The paper further analyzes the semantic features of ironic similes in King’s prose, looks into mechanisms of their interpretation and points out a tendency towards thematic specialization of the model (to have) the noun1 of a noun2.
The paper features issues related to reference and referencing against the information continuum segment wherein cross-cultural communication is intermediated by the English-Russian interaction. Details are provided on the text-specific referential domains, or simply reference domains, which are believed to capture text-external ties with reality, as well as text-internal ties.
The paper discusses the evaluative interpretation of the notion of tolerance through the prism of «svoy/chuzhoy»(one's own/other's) in the Russian national consciousness. the problem is considered in the linguistic aspects: lexical-semantic, linguo-cultural (communicative), cognitive - from the synchronic and diachronic points of view. the relationship between the concepts of «tolerantnost'» (tolerance), «terpimost'» (forbearance) and «terpeniye» (endurance) is a controversial question in modern Russian humanities. Both «terpimost'» (forbearance) and «terpeniye» (endurance) are relevant in the system of cultural values of the Russian nation. the main empirical base of our research was modern confessional memoir prose (autobiographies, diaries, letters, notes, etc.) of the Russian intelligentsia. over 17.5 thousand pages of printed text were analyzed. the data testify to the national markedness of the concept of «terpeniye» (endurance) with both positive and negative connotations. on the other hand, the concept of «terpimost'» (forbearance) seems unmarked in the Russian national consciousness. «Smireniye» (humility) and «terpeniye» (endurance) are perceived negatively in the texts analyzed, as traits suppressing one's willpower. the evaluative aspect of tolerance is extremely important. to analyze that, we compiled a mini-corpus of texts about tolerance. It includes texts discussing the issue of tolerance, written in Russian and published on the Internet. the corpus contains 86 texts of 585,167 characters (1.01 MB), 73,952 tokens and 16,718 types (unique wordforms). corpus evidence was used to reveal the main aspects of the Internet users’ perception of tolerance. In addition, we identified seven most often criticized qualities/characteristics of tolerance.
The article outlines conversation analysis as one of the contemporary methods for studying everyday conversations and interactions. It includes an overview of the history of conversation research and its key approaches in linguistics, ethnography, sociology, psychology and their subdisciplines. the article presents the key ideas, assumptions and principles of conversation analysis. It also considers some special phenomena of everyday conversation: turn-taking, sequences, turn signals, adjacency pairs, preferred options in answers.
The article reviews theoretical concepts elaborated to highlight the concept of linguistic identity with the aim to study social and ethnic aspects of the notion. A number of empirical statements showing high theoretical and practical value of this concept for understanding the social characteristics of the linguistic persona are discussed. The given empirical data prove that a person realizes his or her multifaceted individuality in speech activity. Special attention is paid to the ethnic peculiarities of the linguistic identity, including representatives of minority cultures and bilingual persons. The technique of multivariate analysis of speech activity, developed on the basis of linguistic identity concept and methodology of holistic and functional analysis of personality and activity is presented. Numerous empirical studies show that the linguistic identity is closely linked to the process of socialization of the individual, it absorbs all the impact of the large and small social groups in which the given person is functioning. However, this process is influenced by the emotional and value attitude of the individual to his or her group, and to the representatives of other social groups. On the other hand, the study once again proves that language proficiency is a factor of socialization and defines the style of human interaction with their social environment.