At the end of the ХХ-th century the theory of social capital was highly acclaimed and used by specialists of different social studies, in particular, economists, political scientists and sociologists. Social capital accumulation is favorable to socio-economic development, because mutual trust reduces transaction costs and contributes to dissemination of socially useful information.
The article is dedicated to the search of methods of agreement two paradigms: new institutionalism and the theory of elites. These paradigms determine the studies how political elite influences on the institutional transformation process. Informal model in the form of researching algorithm is proposed in the article. This algorithm defines several factors of the model such as mismatching of formal institutions and informal practices, possession of resources and political elite features.
The article is devoted to the restoration of the concept of human nature in the theory of political realism. The crisis of theory of international relations at the turn of the 20th and 21th centuries forced the followers of political realism to reconsider the main ideas of the structural realism of Kenneth Walz and to begin to study the internal factors of world politics. Thus, scientists need an intellectual basis, on the foundation of which new realistic ideas could appear. The author shows, that some adequate ways to solve this problem is to return to the classical concept of “human nature”. The article uses Robert Sсhuett's book “Political Realism, Freud and Human Nature in International Relations”. Psychoanalytic understanding of this problem makes it possible to clarify key ideas of political realism, including the expansionist behavior of states on the world stage, their desire for security, and the negative attitude of realists towards the use of universal values in international relations. As shown in the article, the key authors of realism were not only influenced by Freud's ideas, but also used his legacy to create their own theory. For example, the idea of the founding father of political realism Hans Morgenthau about the egoistic nature of man is based on the psychoanalytic understanding of love and destructive aspirations. The reasoning of classical realists about the causes and role of nationalism in the formation of international relations is also in close connection with ideas of psychoanalysis. Representation of realists about the elitist essence of power practically repeats Freud's words about the irrationality of the masses and the key role of enlightened rulers.
The modern state as an object of research creates the necessity for improvement of methods of political researches. The author proposes the method of political-law analysis. The law component of the method represents analysis of correspondence of actions of the research object to the norms of the Constitution, international human rights and freedoms acts and current legislation. The political component is based on exposure of political aims and the results of such activities. The method of comparative-institutional analysis is proposed in the article. Its essence is in comparison of different characteristics of the state to expose existing correlations and trends of influence. Initial data is the results of government researches by international and non-governmental organizations.
The article analyzes the phenomenon of «politicization» of social advertising (public service announcements). Social advertising used in political purposes became a political technology that undermines its original value as the source of promotion of humanistic values and ideas. The article presents a comparative analysis of the social and political advertising: species, genre, communication, legislative regulation. The article presents the case studies analysis of using PSA's in Russian politics.
Organized rallies are gaining more influence in socio-political processes in Russia and Europe. Modern protest is taking on new forms and is using new technical capabilities to mobilize participants. Determining potential capacity of a rally, its “unstable equilibrium points” and gauging the public’s possible negative reactions to the political elite’s decision making is becoming an important goal in contemporary political management. The article examines the heuristic potential of two approaches to studying political protest: theory of collective action and theory of mobilization of political opportunities. The first approach stems from the idea of dominance of symbolic values in modern political consciousness, while the second looks in more detail at the “balance of power” and resources that lend to the effectiveness of a protest. Does the environment created by the “new methods” have an impact on the efficacy of a protest? How important are institutional defects in order for citizens to want to organize a rally? Studying these aspects can help gain insight into the public’s real protest potential at regional and local levels in Russia.
Innovation processes in Higher Education are a major driver of the productivity gains that underprin sustained economic growth and contribute to enhanced social well-being. The Russian Government has started supporting for different programs developing innovation processes in this sector as it’s a principal key source of competitiveness in global markets. This article is about how Government uses procurement and regulation to promote innovation in Higher Education of Russia as well what it can do to make this sector more innovative.