This article overviews various approaches to the work with children placed out of parental care in the countries of Northern, Western and Southern Europe. Authors study carefully three main issues. Firstly, we review mechanisms of dealing with biological families in crisis situations. Secondly, we consider order of placing children out of biological families into foster care. Finally, we examine practices of reuniting families if they are supported. Cross-country comparisons show that no universal solutions can be found in this sphere. Within every region a conceptually unified system of work with children and families has different priorities on each level. Nevertheless some foster care practices of the developed countries can be adopted in Russian framework
Ageing of population is a main challenge to the Russian pension system for coming decades. To what extent changing of parameters of demographic development - various rates of life expectancy growth, birth and migration rates will impact the finances of pension system? Authors answer this question using the analysis of forecasted dynamics of pension benefits and of the pension incomes and expenditures balance in frame of pay-as-you-go pension system. The article discusses the methodology of pension forecasts and its possible limitations, as well as the results of forecasting of basic parameters of pension system till 2030 in different scenarios of the population projection. The issue of financial consequences of possible growth of pension age is discussed separately.
For the last years the issues of child abandonment are on top of political and public agenda. Socio-economical and political transformations of 1990-2000s led to significant changes in living standards, rejected the ability of family as institution to provide child guidance and care. At the same time the system of identifying families and children in unfavorable living conditions has enhanced that led to the growing number of abandoned children and children without parental care. Current policy of preventing and overcoming of orphanhood in Russia is not a holistic system, current measures are often inadequate and do not lead to serious improvements, so the primary risks of social orphanhood among Russian children currently is at the same level as it was 10 years ago. The policy of orphanhood deinstitualization that has been realized over a number of years leads to a substantial change in the contingent of children in the institutions, which poses new challenges for the system of placing orphans and further support for them.
This article is devoted to a new approach to the social care for poor families, which is now applied in all regions of Russia. Having summarized the experience of introduction of the conditional transfers in foreign countries some regions of Russia have already chosen forms and principles of social suport which are more suitable for their conditions and financial situation. Amendments to the Federal Law “On Social Care” adopted in 2012 require the introduction of the active type of social care system in all regions of Russia. Thus it is important to understand the specific of the introduction of social contract programs in Russian social service system. The experience of Russian regions in providing of targeted social care using the system of social contract gives the opportunity to other regions of Russia to choose the most successful cases of the application of this methodology and of working with local people.