We study the effect of the Fermi surface anisotropy on the odd-frequency spin-triplet pairing component of the induced pair potential. We consider a superconductor/ ferromagnetic insulator (S/FI) hybrid structure formed on the 3D topological insulator (TI) surface. In this case three ingredients insure the possibility of the odd-frequency pairing: 1) the topological surface states, 2) the induced pair potential, and 3) the magnetic moment of a nearby ferromagnetic insulator. We take into account the strong anisotropy of the Dirac cone in topological insulators when the chemical potential lies well above the Dirac cone and its constant energy contour has a snowflake shape. Within this model, we propose that the S/FI boundary should be properly aligned with respect to the snowflake constant energy contour to have an odd-frequency symmetry of the corresponding pairing component and to insure the Majorana bound state at the S/FI boundary. For arbitrary orientation of the boundary the Majorana bound state is absent. This provides a selection rule to the realization of Majorana modes in S/FI hybrid structures, formed on the topological insulator surface.
We develop a theory of electron–photon interaction for helical edge channels in two-dimensional topological insulators based on zinc-blende-type quantum wells. It is shown that the lack of space inversion symmetry in such structures enables the electro-dipole optical transitions between the spin branches of the topological edge states. Further, we demonstrate the linear and circular dichroism associated with the edge states and the generation of edge photocurrents controlled by radiation polarization.
Despite the interest in a chlorine monolayer on Si(100) as an alternative to hydrogen resist for atomic-precision doping, little is known about its interaction with dopant-containing molecules. We used the density functional theory to evaluate whether a chlorine monolayer on Si(100) is suitable as a resist for PH3, PCl3, and BCl3 molecules. We calculated reaction pathways for PH3, PCl3, and BCl3 adsorption on a bare and Cl-terminated Si(100)-2 × 1 surface, as well as for PH3 adsorption on H-terminated Si(100)-2 × 1, which is widely used in current technologies for atomically precise doping of Si(100) with phosphorus. It was found that the Si(100)-2 × 1-Cl surface has a higher reactivity toward phosphine than Si(100)-2 × 1-H, and, therefore, unpatterned areas are less protected from undesirable incorporation of PH3 fragments. On the contrary, the resistance of the Si(100)-2 × 1-Cl surface against the chlorine-containing molecules turned out to be very high. Several factors influencing reactivity are discussed. The results reveal that phosphorus and boron trichlorides are well-suited for doping a patterned Cl-resist by donors and acceptors, respectively.
Rapid development of micro- and nanofabrication methods have provoked interest and enabled experimental studies of electronic properties of a vast class of (sub)micrometersize solid state systems. Mesoscopic-size hybrid structures, containing superconducting elements, have become interesting objects for basic research studies and various applications, ranging from medical and astrophysical sensors to quantum computing. One of the most important aspects of physics, governing the behavior of such systems, is the finite concentration of nonequilibrium quasiparticles, present in a superconductor even well below the temperature of superconducting transition. Those nonequilibrium excitations might limit the performance of a variety of superconducting devices, like superconducting qubits, singleelectron turnstiles and microrefrigerators. On the contrary, in some applications, like detectors of electromagnetic radiation, the nonequilibrium state is essential for their operation. It is therefore of vital importance to study the mechanisms of nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in superconductors of mesoscopic dimensions, where the whole structure can be considered as an ‘interface’. At early stages of research the problem was mostly studied in relatively massive systems and at high temperatures close to the critical temperature of a superconductor. We review the recent progress in studies of nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in superconductors including the low temperature limit. We also discuss the open physical questions and perspectives of development in the field.
We reply to the comment on our paper by Budkov (2018 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 30 344001).
We investigate the multiquantum vortex states in a type-II superconductor in both 'clean' and 'dirty' regimes defined by impurity scattering rate. Within a quasiclassical approach we calculate self-consistently the order parameter distributions and electronic local density of states (LDOS) profiles. In the clean case we find the low temperature vortex core anomaly predicted analytically by Volovik (1993 JETP Lett. 58 455) and obtain the patterns of LDOS distributions. In the dirty regime multiquantum vortices feature a peculiar plateau in the zero energy LDOS profile, which can be considered as an experimental hallmark of multiquantum vortex formation in mesoscopic superconductors.
Superconducting films are usually regarded as type II superconductors even when they are made of a type I material. The reason is the presence of stray magnetic fields that stabilize the vortex matter by inducing long-range repulsive interactions between vortices. While very thin films indeed reach this limit, there is a large interval of thicknesses where magnetic properties of superconducting films cannot be classified as either of the two conventional superconductivity types. Recent calculations revealed that in this interval the system exhibits spontaneous formation of magnetic flux-condensate patterns and superstructures appearing due to the interplay between the long-range stray field effects and proximity to the Bogomolnyi selfduality point. These calculations were based on the periodic in-plane boundary conditions which, as is well known from classical electrodynamics, for systems with long-range interactions can lead to field distortions and considerable discrepancies between results of different calculation methods. Here we demonstrate that similar spontaneous patterns are obtained for superconducting films with open in-plane boundary conditions (vanishing in-plane currents perpendicular to the edges of the finite film) and thus the phenomenon is not an artefact of chosen boundary conditions.
On the basis of the phenomenological Ginzburg–Landau model we calculate the critical current of the domain-wall superconducting channel formed in flux-coupled superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids in the presence of the nonuniform magnetic field of the domain walls. It is shown that the current-carrying ability in such S/F systems in the domain-wall superconducting state differs for the positive and negative directions of the injected current with respect to the parity-breaking vector, which is proportional to and thus determined by the local magnetization vector M(r) in the ferromagnetic substrate. We demonstrate that in such S/F systems the realization of the so-called diode effect is possible for both laterally infinite and mesoscopic structures
The flow of electric current in quantum well breaks the space inversion symmetry, which leads to the dependence of the radiation transmission on the relative orientation of current and photon wave vector, this phenomenon can be named current drag of photons. We have developed a microscopic theory of such an effect for intersubband transitions in quantum wells taking into account both depolarization and exchange-correlation effects. It is shown that the effect of the current drag of photons originates from the asymmetry of intersubband optical transitions due to the redistribution of electrons in momentum space. We show that the presence of dc electric current leads to the shift of intersubband resonance position and affects both transmission coefficient and absorbance in quantum wells.
Langevin dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the plastic response of a model glass to a local shear transformation in a quiescent system. The deformation of the material is induced by a spherical inclusion that is gradually strained into an ellipsoid of the same volume and then reverted back into the sphere. We show that the number of cage-breaking events increases with increasing strain amplitude of the shear transformation. The results of numerical simulations indicate that the density of cage jumps is larger in the cases of weak damping or slow shear transformation. Remarkably, we also found that, for a given strain amplitude, the peak value of the density profiles is a function of the ratio of the damping coefficient and the time scale of the shear transformation.